2 What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.PerceptionA process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
3 Perception What is Perception? Why is it Important? How we view and interpret the events and situations in the world about us.Why is it Important?Because people’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
4 What is the perceptual process? Stages of the perceptual process.1- Picking up some external stimuli2- Screening, when we only acknowledge the stimuli we choose to acknowledge3- Some interpretation and categorization of these stimuli, possibly based on previous experience or on our upbringing.4
5 Example You hear that your team has lost a game. You screen this information in a negative manner, assuming something is wrong with the team rather than it has just had a bad day or was unlucky.You interpret this information on the basis of previous experience and decide it is a further example of bad team management.
7 Selective PerceptionSelectively interpret the target basing on own interests, background, experience, and attitudes.Halo effectThe perceiver’s pick upon a particular attribute of the perceived to determine their overall perception.
8 Contrast Effects Projection The perceiver’s perceptions of others distort the perceiver’s perception of a target.ProjectionAttribute own characteristics to others. (take homogeneity for granted)StereotypingJudge someone on the basis of the perception of the group to which they belong instead of their own characteristics.
9 Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Attribution TheoryWhen individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations.Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation.Consistency: responds in the same way over time.
11 Errors and Biases in Attributions The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
12 Errors and Biases in Attributions (cont’d) Self-Serving BiasThe tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
13 Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Selective PerceptionPeople selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
14 Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others Halo EffectDrawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristicContrast EffectsEvaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics.
15 Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others ProjectionAttributing one’s own characteristics to other people.StereotypingJudging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.
16 Specific Applications in Organizations Employment InterviewPerceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants.Performance ExpectationsSelf-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities.Ethnic ProfilingA form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out—typically on the basis of race or ethnicity—for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation.
17 Specific Applications in Organizations (cont’d) Performance EvaluationsAppraisals are often the subjective (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of another employee’s job performance.Employee EffortAssessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to perceptual distortion and bias.
18 The Link Between Perceptions and Individual Decision Making Problem A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state.Perception of the decision makerDecisions Choices made from among alternatives developed from data perceived as relevant.Outcomes
19 Decision MakingDefinition: The process by which members of an organization choose a specific course of action to respond to both problems and opportunities.The Decision-Making ProcessRational Model of Decision MakingBounded RationalityImplicit Favorite ModelIntuitive Model
20 Rational Model of Decision Making Assumptions: the decision maker has all the necessary information and will choose the best possible solution or response.Steps:1.Ascertain the need for decision-disparity2. Identify the decision criteria3.Allocate weight to the criteria Develop,evaluate the alternatives5.Select the best
21 Assumptions of the Rational Model Problem clarity.Known options.Clear preferences.Constant preferences.No time or cost constraints.People choose maximum payoff.
22 Bounded RationalityBounded Rationality: People’s ability to reason is constrained by the limitations of the human mind itself. If a problem is too complicated people simplify it and use satisficingSatisficing: Searching for and choosing the first acceptable response or solution, not necessarily the best possible one.
23 Intuitive Modelan unconscious process created out of distilled experience.intuition is often based on accumulated experiences which allow one to recognize patterns.Main problem: since the criteria are not open to examination, intuition is often strongly influenced by perceptual biases.
24 Intuitive Decision Making most common under conditions of High uncertainty levelsLittle precedentHard to predictable variablesLimited factsUnclear sense of directionAnalytical data is of little useSeveral plausible alternativesTime constraints