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Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Chapter 5 Individual Perception and Decision- Making 5-1 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 11/e Global Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Chapter 5 Individual Perception and Decision- Making 5-1 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 11/e Global Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Chapter 5 Individual Perception and Decision- Making 5-1 Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 11/e Global Edition Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge

2 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Perception 5-2 A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important.

3 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Factors Influencing Perception 5-3 Perception SituationPerceiverTarget

4 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Person Perception: Attribution Theory 5-4 Suggests that perceivers try to “attribute” the observed behavior to a type of cause:  Internal – behavior is believed to be under the personal control of the individual  External – the person is forced into the behavior by outside events/causes

5 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Determinants of Attribution 5-5 Distinctiveness – whether an individual displays different behaviors in different situations (the uniqueness of the act) Consensus – does everyone who faces a similar situation respond in the same way as the individual did Consistency – does the person respond the same way over time

6 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Determination of Attribution 5-6

7 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Attribution Errors 5-7  Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate that of internal factors.  Self-Serving Bias Occurs when individuals overestimate their own (internal) influence on successes and overestimate the external influences on their failures.

8 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Shortcuts Used in Judging Others 5-8  Selective Perception – a perceptual filtering process based on interests, background, and attitude. May allow observers to draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation.  Halo Effect – drawing a general impression based on a single characteristic.  Contrast Effects – our reaction is influenced by others we have recently encountered (the context of the observation).  Stereotyping – judging someone on the basis of the perception of the group to which they belong.

9 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education The Link Between Perception and Decision Making 5-9 Decision making occurs as a reaction to a perceived problem  Perception influences:  Awareness that a problem exists  The interpretation and evaluation of information  Bias of analysis and conclusions

10 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Rational Decision-Making Model 5-10 1. Define the problem. 2. Identify the decision criteria. 3. Allocate weights to the criteria. 4. Develop the alternatives. 5. Evaluate the alternatives. 6. Select the best alternative. Seldom actually used: more of a goal than a practical method

11 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Assumptions of the Model 5-11  Complete knowledge of the situation  All relevant options are known in an unbiased manner  The decision-maker seeks the highest utility

12 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Bounded Rationality 5-12 The limited information-processing capability of human beings makes it impossible to assimilate and understand all the information necessary to optimize So people seek solutions that are satisfactory and sufficient, rather than optimal (they “satisfice”) Bounded rationality is constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity

13 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Decision Making in Bounded Rationality 5-13 Simpler than rational decision making, composed of three steps: 1. Limited search for criteria and alternatives – familiar criteria and easily found alternatives 2. Limited review of alternatives – focus alternatives, similar to those already in effect 3. Satisficing – selecting the first alternative that is “good enough”

14 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Intuitive Decision Making 5-14  An non-conscious process created out of distilled experience  Increases with experience  Can be a powerful complement to rational analysis in decision making

15 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Common Biases and Errors 5-15  Overconfidence Bias As managers and employees become more knowledgeable about an issue, the less likely they are to display overconfidence  Anchoring Bias A tendency to fixate on initial information and fail to adequately adjust for subsequent information  Confirmation Bias Seeking out information that reaffirms our past choices and discounting information that contradicts past judgments

16 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Common Biases and Errors 5-16  Availability Bias The tendency to base judgments on information that is readily available  Escalation of Commitment Staying with a decision even when there is clear evidence that it is wrong  Risk Aversion Preferring a sure thing over a risky outcome  Hindsight Bias The tendency to believe falsely that we could have accurately predicted the outcome of an event after that outcome is already known

17 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Organizational Constraints on Decision Making 5-17  Performance evaluations  Reward systems  Formal regulations  Self-imposed time constraints  Historical precedents

18 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Ethical Frameworks for Decision Making 5-18 Utilitarian  Provide the greatest good for the greatest number Rights  make decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges Justice  impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially so that there is equal distribution of benefits and costs

19 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Creativity in Decision Making 5-19 The ability to produce novel and useful ideas  Helps people to:  Better understand the problem  See problems others can’t see  Identify all viable alternatives  Identify alternatives that aren’t readily apparent

20 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Three-Component Model of Creativity 5-20 Expertise Intrinsic Task Motivation Creative- Thinking Skills

21 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education Implications for Managers 5-21 Perception:  To increase productivity, influence workers’ perceptions of their jobs To improve decision making: 1. Analyze the situation 2. Adjust your decision approach 3. Be aware of biases and minimize their impact 4. Combine rational analysis with intuition 5. Try to enhance your creativity

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