2 What Is Child Abuse?Child abuse occurs when a parent, guardian or caregiver mistreats or neglects a child, resulting in:injurysignificant emotional or psychological harmserious risk of harm to the child.Child abuse entails the betrayal of a caregiver's position of trust and authority over a child. It can take many different forms.
3 Physical abuse is the deliberate application of force to any part of a child's body. Physical abuse also includes behavior such as:ShakingChokingBitingKickingBurningPoisoning a childHolding a child under water
4 Child sexual abuseChild sexual abuse occurs when a child occurs when a child is used for sexual purposes by an adult or adolescent. It involves exposing a child to any sexual activity or behavior. Other forms of sexual abuse include sexual intercourse, juvenile prostitution and sexual exploitation through pornography.
5 Physical neglect occurs when a child's needs for: food clothing Neglect occurs when a child's parents or other caregivers are not providing essential basics to a child's emotional, psychological and physical development. Physical neglect occurs when a child's needs for:Physical neglect occurs when a child's needs for:foodclothingsheltercleanlinessmedical careprotection from harm
6 forcing a child into social isolation intimidating exploiting, Emotional neglect occurs when a child's need to feel loved, wanted, safe and worthy is not met. Emotional neglect can range from the context of the abuser simply being unavailable to that in which the abuser openly rejects the child.forcing a child into social isolationintimidatingexploiting,terrorizingmaking unreasonable demands on a child.exposure of a child to violence between the parents
7 Emotional abuse involves an attack on a child's sense of self Emotional abuse involves an attack on a child's sense of self. Emotional abuse is usually found in the context of a long-term problem in a parent's treatment of a child. It is often part of a pattern of family stress and dysfunctional parenting. Emotional abuse frequently co-exists with other types of abuse:constantly insultinghumiliatingrejecting a child,saying that a child is ``stupid'' or ``bad'',can harm a child's sense of worth and self-confidence
8 Where do we find child abuse and neglect? Child abuse is not confined to any one social class or sector of the population; it cuts across all ethnic, religious, social and economic backgrounds.Child abuse and neglect occur in every province and territory, in large cities, small towns and rural and urban areas all over the worldWhile children of all ages are at risk, those 3 years old or less are most frequently investigated for neglect, and children 12 to 15 years old are most frequently investigated for physical abuse.(Trocme,1993.)
9 Family FactorsEconomic disadvantage is a major contributor to child neglect. (Trocme,1993)Poverty appears to be a risk factor for physical abuse, though not for emotional abuse. (E.D. Jones and K. McCurdy,1992)Causes of stress on families, such as unemployment, can contribute to child maltreatment. (V. Krishnan and K.B. Morrison, 1995)Alcohol and drug abuse (Karr-Morse & Wiley 1997)Parental mental illnessMulti-generational abuse (J.A. Weston, M. Colloton, S. Halsey, S. Covington, J. Gilbert,L. Sorrentino-Kelly and S.S. Renoud,1993)
10 What are the characteristics of abusers? Unrealistic expectations of the childUnplanned pregnancyIsolated from family or community supportsNeed to control the childSee the child as a burden or acting disrespectfully
11 Children of abuse:Younger children are at greater risk of severe injury or death as a result of child abusePrenatal drug exposure or failure to thrive infantsPhysically or developmentally delayed children
12 Impact of abuse on the child’s development and behavior Lower school performanceAggressiveDeviant of rules and lawsPoor social skills/ or seek abusive relationships as adultsSocially isolatedGreater risk for becoming criminals and drug abusersSuffer from low self-esteem, depression
13 What can be done?Parent educationOutreach servicesCommunity awareness (schools, doctors, local government)