Presentation on theme: "Choices in Relationships"— Presentation transcript:
1 Choices in Relationships Chapter Fourteen: Violence and Abusein Relationships
2 Definitions of Violence/Physical Abuse and Emotional Abuse Defined as the intentional infliction of physical harm by either partner on the other.
3 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Cultural FactorsViolence in the MediaCorporal PunishmentGender InequalityView of Women and Children as PropertyStress
4 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Community FactorsSocial IsolationPovertyInaccessible or Unaffordable Community ServicesLack of Violence Prevention Programs
5 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Individual FactorsPsychopathologyPersonality FactorsAlcohol and Other Drug Use
6 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Individual FactorsPersonality FactorsDependencyJealousyNeed to controlUnhappiness and dissatisfactionAnger and aggressivenessQuick involvementBlaming others for problemsJekyll-and-Hyde personalityIsolationOther factors
7 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships Family FactorsChild Abuse in Family of OriginParents Who Abused Each Other
8 Abuse in Dating Relationships Acquaintance and Date RapeAcquaintance rape is defined as nonconsensual sex between adults who know each other.Date rape refers to nonconsensual sex between people who are dating or on a date.Rophypnol—The Date Rape DrugRophypnol, known as “the date rape drug,” causes profound, prolonged sedation and short-term memory loss.
9 Abuse in Marriage Relationships General Abuse in MarriageThe ways in which spouses are abusive toward each other resemble the abusive behavior of unmarried couples.Rape in MarriageTen percent of married women in a Boston survey reported that they had been raped by their husbands
10 Effects of Abuse Effects of Partner Abuse on Victims The most obvious effect of physical abuse by an intimate partner is physical injury.Other effects include fear, feelings of helplessness, confusion, isolation, humiliation, anxiety, stress-induced illness, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicide attempts.
11 Effects of Abuse Effects of Partner Abuse on Children Some women are abused during their pregnancy, resulting in a high rate of miscarriage and birth defects.Negative effects may also accrue to children who just witness domestic abuse.It is not unusual for children to observe and to become involved in adult domestic violence.
12 Should You End an Abusive Marital Relationship? Some say, “Seek a divorce.”Those opting for divorce felt they couldn’t live with someone who had abused or would abuse them.Most said, “Don’t overreact and try to work it out.”Most felt that marriage was too strong a commitment to end if the abuse could be stopped.
14 The Cycle of Abuse Why People Stay in Abusive Relationships Love Emotional dependencyCommitment to the relationshipHopeView of violence as legitimateGuiltFearEconomic dependenceIsolation
15 The Cycle of Abuse Disengaging from an Abusive Relationship The abused woman may have difficulty breaking free because of limited resources.The catalyst for breaking free combines the sustained aversiveness of staying, the perception that she and her children will be harmed by doing so, and the awareness of an alternative path.
16 The Cycle of Abuse Strategies to Prevent Domestic Abuse Public educationMedia campaignsReducing poverty and unemploymentTreatment of Partner AbusersTreatment for men who abuse their partners involves teaching them to take responsibility for their own abusive behavior, developing empathy for their partner’s victimization, reducing their dependency on their partners, and improving their communication skills.
17 General Child AbuseChild abuse may take many forms—physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse.
18 General Child Abuse Physical Abuse and Neglect Child abuse can be defined as any interaction or lack of interaction between a child and his or her parents or caregiver that results in nonaccidental harm to the child’s physical or psychological well-being.Child abuse includes physical abuse, verbal abuse, and neglect.
19 General Child Abuse Factors Contributing to General Child Abuse Parental psychopathologyUnrealistic expectationsHistory of abuseDisplacement of aggressionSocial isolationFatherless homesOther factors
20 General Child Abuse Other factors include: The pregnancy is premarital or unplanned, and the father or mother does not want the child.The child suffers from developmental disabilities or mental retardation.The parents are unemployed.Abuse between the husband and wife is present.The children are adopted or are foster children.
21 General Child Abuse Effects of General Child Abuse Few close social relationshipsInability to love or trustCommunication problems and learning disabilitiesAggression, low self-esteem, depression, and low academic achievementPhysical injuriesIncreased risk of alcohol or substance abuse and suicidal tendencies as adultsPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
22 Child Sexual AbuseExtrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse—The Catholic ExampleIn extrafamilial child sexual abuse the perpetrator is someone outside the family who is not related to the child.Intrafamilial Child Sexual AbuseA more frequent type of child sexual abuse is intrafamilial child sexual abuse (formerly referred to in professional literature as incest).
23 Child Sexual Abuse Effects of Child Sexual Abuse The most devastating effects of being sexually abused occur when the sexual abuse is forceful, is prolonged, and involves intercourse, and when it is perpetrated by a father or stepfather.
24 Child Sexual Abuse Strategies to Reduce Child Sexual Abuse Regendering cultural rolesProviding specific information on sex abuseImproving the safety of neighborhoodsProviding sexuality education at schoolPromoting public awareness campaigns
25 Parent, Sibling, and Elder Abuse Parent AbuseIt is not uncommon for teenage and even younger children to physically and verbally lash out at their parents.Sibling AbuseMost incidents of sibling violence consist of slaps, pushes, kicks, bites, and punches.