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Choices in Relationships

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Presentation on theme: "Choices in Relationships"— Presentation transcript:

1 Choices in Relationships
Chapter Fourteen: Violence and Abuse in Relationships

2 Definitions of Violence/Physical Abuse and Emotional Abuse
Defined as the intentional infliction of physical harm by either partner on the other.

3 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships
Cultural Factors Violence in the Media Corporal Punishment Gender Inequality View of Women and Children as Property Stress

4 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships
Community Factors Social Isolation Poverty Inaccessible or Unaffordable Community Services Lack of Violence Prevention Programs

5 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships
Individual Factors Psychopathology Personality Factors Alcohol and Other Drug Use

6 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships
Individual Factors Personality Factors Dependency Jealousy Need to control Unhappiness and dissatisfaction Anger and aggressiveness Quick involvement Blaming others for problems Jekyll-and-Hyde personality Isolation Other factors

7 Explanations for Violence/Abuse in Relationships
Family Factors Child Abuse in Family of Origin Parents Who Abused Each Other

8 Abuse in Dating Relationships
Acquaintance and Date Rape Acquaintance rape is defined as nonconsensual sex between adults who know each other. Date rape refers to nonconsensual sex between people who are dating or on a date. Rophypnol—The Date Rape Drug Rophypnol, known as “the date rape drug,” causes profound, prolonged sedation and short-term memory loss.

9 Abuse in Marriage Relationships
General Abuse in Marriage The ways in which spouses are abusive toward each other resemble the abusive behavior of unmarried couples. Rape in Marriage Ten percent of married women in a Boston survey reported that they had been raped by their husbands

10 Effects of Abuse Effects of Partner Abuse on Victims
The most obvious effect of physical abuse by an intimate partner is physical injury. Other effects include fear, feelings of helplessness, confusion, isolation, humiliation, anxiety, stress-induced illness, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicide attempts.

11 Effects of Abuse Effects of Partner Abuse on Children
Some women are abused during their pregnancy, resulting in a high rate of miscarriage and birth defects. Negative effects may also accrue to children who just witness domestic abuse. It is not unusual for children to observe and to become involved in adult domestic violence.

12 Should You End an Abusive Marital Relationship?
Some say, “Seek a divorce.” Those opting for divorce felt they couldn’t live with someone who had abused or would abuse them. Most said, “Don’t overreact and try to work it out.” Most felt that marriage was too strong a commitment to end if the abuse could be stopped.

13 The Cycle of Abuse

14 The Cycle of Abuse Why People Stay in Abusive Relationships Love
Emotional dependency Commitment to the relationship Hope View of violence as legitimate Guilt Fear Economic dependence Isolation

15 The Cycle of Abuse Disengaging from an Abusive Relationship
The abused woman may have difficulty breaking free because of limited resources. The catalyst for breaking free combines the sustained aversiveness of staying, the perception that she and her children will be harmed by doing so, and the awareness of an alternative path.

16 The Cycle of Abuse Strategies to Prevent Domestic Abuse
Public education Media campaigns Reducing poverty and unemployment Treatment of Partner Abusers Treatment for men who abuse their partners involves teaching them to take responsibility for their own abusive behavior, developing empathy for their partner’s victimization, reducing their dependency on their partners, and improving their communication skills.

17 General Child Abuse Child abuse may take many forms—physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse.

18 General Child Abuse Physical Abuse and Neglect
Child abuse can be defined as any interaction or lack of interaction between a child and his or her parents or caregiver that results in nonaccidental harm to the child’s physical or psychological well-being. Child abuse includes physical abuse, verbal abuse, and neglect.

19 General Child Abuse Factors Contributing to General Child Abuse
Parental psychopathology Unrealistic expectations History of abuse Displacement of aggression Social isolation Fatherless homes Other factors

20 General Child Abuse Other factors include:
The pregnancy is premarital or unplanned, and the father or mother does not want the child. The child suffers from developmental disabilities or mental retardation. The parents are unemployed. Abuse between the husband and wife is present. The children are adopted or are foster children.

21 General Child Abuse Effects of General Child Abuse
Few close social relationships Inability to love or trust Communication problems and learning disabilities Aggression, low self-esteem, depression, and low academic achievement Physical injuries Increased risk of alcohol or substance abuse and suicidal tendencies as adults Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

22 Child Sexual Abuse Extrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse—The Catholic Example In extrafamilial child sexual abuse the perpetrator is someone outside the family who is not related to the child. Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse A more frequent type of child sexual abuse is intrafamilial child sexual abuse (formerly referred to in professional literature as incest).

23 Child Sexual Abuse Effects of Child Sexual Abuse
The most devastating effects of being sexually abused occur when the sexual abuse is forceful, is prolonged, and involves intercourse, and when it is perpetrated by a father or stepfather.

24 Child Sexual Abuse Strategies to Reduce Child Sexual Abuse
Regendering cultural roles Providing specific information on sex abuse Improving the safety of neighborhoods Providing sexuality education at school Promoting public awareness campaigns

25 Parent, Sibling, and Elder Abuse
Parent Abuse It is not uncommon for teenage and even younger children to physically and verbally lash out at their parents. Sibling Abuse Most incidents of sibling violence consist of slaps, pushes, kicks, bites, and punches.

26 Parent, Sibling, and Elder Abuse
Neglect Physical abuse Psychological abuse Social abuse Legal abuse

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