Marketing Research The Marketing Research Process Dr. Zafer Erdogan.
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Marketing Research The Marketing Research Process Dr. Zafer Erdogan
2 I keep six honest serving men, (they taught me all I knew), their names are --Rudyard Kipling what, and why, and when,and how, and where and who.”
Information & Decision Making The key to decision making is; –to recognize the nature of the problem/opportunity, –to identify how much information is available, –to recognize what information is needed.
Types Of Research Marketing research can be classified on the basis of technique or purpose. –Exploratory –Descriptive –Causal
Exploratory Research Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem Does not provide conclusive evidence Subsequent research expected –Our sales are declining and we don’t know why. –Would people be interested in our new product idea?
Descriptive Research Describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon Some understanding of the nature of the problem –What kind of people are buying our product? –Who buys our competitor’s product? –What features do buyers prefer in our product?
Descriptive Research Example Weight Watchers average customer –Woman about 40 years old –Household income of about $50,000 –At least some college education –Trying to juggle children and a job
Descriptive Research Example Men’s fragrance market –1/3 size of women’s fragrance market –But growing at a faster pace –Women buy 80 % of men’s fragrances
Causal Research Conducted to identify cause and effect relationships –Will buyers purchase more of our products in a new package? –Which of two advertising campaigns is more effective? ?
Identifying Causality A causal relationship is impossible to prove. Evidence of causality: 1. The appropriate causal order of events 2. Concomitant variation--two phenomena vary together 3. An absence of alternative plausible explanations
COMPLETELY CERTAIN ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY CAUSAL OR DESCRIPTIVE EXPLORATORY Degree of Uncertainty Influences The Type of Research
Stages of the Research Process Problem Discovery and Definition Research Design Sampling Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Discovery and Definition and so on
Research Stages Cyclical process - conclusions generate new ideas Stages can overlap chronologically Stages are functionally interrelated –Forward linkages –Backward linkages
Problem discovery Problem definition (statement of research objectives) Secondary (historical) data Experience survey Pilot study Case study Selection of exploratory research technique Selection of basic research method ExperimentSurvey Observation Secondary Data Study LaboratoryFieldInterviewQuestionnaire Selection of Sampling technique Sampling ProbabilityNonprobability Collection of data (fieldwork) Editing and coding data Data processing Interpretation of findings Report Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Research Design Problem Discovery and Definition
Problem Discovery and Definition First step Problem, opportunity, or monitor operations Discovery before definition Problem means management problem
“The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution” Albert Einstein
17 State the research questions and research objectives Make a formal problem statement and the research objectives To provide a framework for the scope of the study ‘To what extent did the new comm. campaign achieve its objectives’ The best expression of a research objective is a well- formed, testable research hypothesis. –A statement –that can be refuted or supported –by empirical data
If you do not know where you are going, any road will take you there.
Exploratory Research Techniques Two Examples Secondary data (historical data) –Previously collected –Census of population –Literature survey Pilot study –A number of diverse techniques
Research Design Master plan Framework for action Specifies methods and procedures
Basic Research Methods Surveys Experiments Secondary data Observation There is no one best research design!
POPULATION SAMPLE Sample: subset of a larger population. Selecting a Sample
Sampling Who is to be sampled? How large a sample? How will sample units be selected?
Data Gathering Stage Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions And Report Writing
Research Proposal A written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the study. Detailed outline of procedures associated with a particular methodology