Problem Definition and the Research Proposal Dr. Zafer Erdogan
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1 Problem Definition and the Research Proposal Dr. Zafer Erdogan Marketing ResearchProblem Definition and theResearch ProposalDr. Zafer Erdogan
2 Uncertainty Influences the Type of Research CAUSAL ORDESCRIPTIVECOMPLETELYCERTAINABSOLUTEAMBIGUITYEXPLORATORY
3 Problem Discovery and Definition The indication of a specific marketing decision area that will be clarified by answering some research questions.First stepProblem, opportunity, or monitor operationsDiscovery before definitionProblem means management problem
4 The Process of Problem Definition Isolate/identify the problem, not the symptomsAscertain the decision maker’s objectivesUnderstand background of the problemDetermine unit of analysisDetermine relevant variablesState research questions and objectives
5 Ascertain the Decision Maker’s Objectives Managerial goals expressed in measurable terms.
6 The Iceberg PrincipleThe principle indicating that the dangerous part of many marketing problems is neither visible to nor understood by marketing managers.
7 Understand the Background of the Problem Exercising judgmentSituation analysis - The informal gathering of background information to familiarize researchers or managers with the decision area.
8 Isolate and Identify the Problems, Not the Symptoms Symptoms can be confusing
9 Symptoms Can Be Confusing Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association:Membership has been declining for years.New water park -residents prefer the expensive water park?Demographic changes: Children have grown up
10 Problem DefinitionOrganization Symptoms Based on Symptom True ProblemTwenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association in a major city.Membership has been declining for years. New water park with wave pool and water slides moved into town a few years ago.Neighborhood residents prefer the expensive water park and have negative image of swimming pool.Demographic changes: Children in this 20-year-old neighborhood have grown up. Older residents no longer swim anywhere.
11 Determine the Unit of Analysis Individuals, households, organizations, etc.In many studies, the family rather than the individual is the appropriate unit of analysis.
12 Determine the Relevant Variable Anything that may assume different numerical valuesTypes of variablesCategoricalContinuousDependentIndependent
13 State the research questions and research objectives The researcher’s translation of the marketing problem into a specific need for inquiry.HypothesisAn unproven propositionA possible solution to a problemGuess
14 Broad research objectives Statement of marketing problem Exploratory research (optional)Specific Objective 1Specific Objective 2Specific Objective 3Research DesignResults
15 Research ProposalA written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the studyDetailed outline of procedures associated with a particular methodology
16 Basic Questions - Problem Definition What is the purpose of the study?How much is already known?Is additional background information necessary?What is to be measured? How?Can the data be made available?Should research be conducted?Can a hypothesis be formulated?
17 Basic Questions - Basic Research Design What types of questions need to be answered?Are descriptive or causal findings required?What is the source of the data?
18 Basic Questions - Basic Research Design Can objective answers be obtained by asking people?How quickly is the information needed?How should survey questions be worded?How should experimental manipulations be made?
19 Basic Questions - Selection of Sample Who or what is the source of the data?Can the target population be identified?Is a sample necessary?How accurate must the sample be?Is a probability sample necessary?Is a national sample necessary?How large a sample is necessary?How will the sample be selected?
20 Basic Questions - Data Gathering Who will gather the data?How long will data gathering take?How much supervision is needed?What operational procedures need to be followed?
21 Basic Questions - Data Analysis Will standardized editing and coding procedures be used?How will the data be categorized?What statistical software will be used?What is the nature of the data?What questions need to be answered?How many variables are to be investigated simultaneously?Performance criteria for evaluation?
22 Basic Questions - Type of Report Who will read the report?Are managerial recommendations requested?How many presentations are required?What will be the format of the written report?
23 Basic Questions - Overall Evaluation How much will the study cost?Is the time frame acceptable?Is outside help needed?Will this research design attain the stated research objectives?When should the research be scheduled to begin?
24 Anticipating Outcomes Dummy tablesRepresentations of the actual tables that will be in the findings section of the final report; used to gain a better understanding of what the actual outcomes of the research will be.