2 Problem discovery Selection of exploratory research technique and DefinitionSamplingSelection ofexploratory researchtechniqueProbabilityNonprobabilitySecondary(historical)dataExperiencesurveyPilotstudyCasestudyCollection ofdata(fieldwork)DataGatheringDataProcessingandAnalysisEditing andcodingdataProblem definition(statement ofresearch objectives)DataprocessingSelection ofbasic researchmethodResearch DesignConclusionsand ReportInterpretationoffindingsExperimentSurveyObservationSecondaryData StudyReportLaboratoryFieldInterviewQuestionnaire
3 Problem DefinitionThe indication of a specific business decision area that will be clarified by answering some research questions.
4 Defining Problem Results in Clear Cut Research Objectives Symptom DetectionAnalysis ofthe SituationExploratoryResearch(Optional)Problem DefinitionStatement ofResearch Objectives
5 The Process of Problem Definition Ascertain the decision maker’s objectivesDetermine unit of analysisUnderstand background of the problemDetermine relevant variablesIsolate/identify the problem, not the symptomsState research questions and objectives
6 Ascertain the Decision Maker’s Objectives Managerial goals expressed in measurable terms.
7 The Iceberg PrincipleThe principle indicating that the dangerous part of many business problems is neither visible to nor understood by managers.
8 Understand the Background of the Problem Exercising judgmentSituation analysis - The informal gathering of background information to familiarize researchers or managers with the decision area.
9 Isolate and Identify the Problems, Not the Symptoms Symptoms can be confusing
10 Symptoms Can Be Confusing Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association:Membership has been declining for years.New water park -residents prefer the expensive water park????Demographic changes: Children have grown up
11 Problem DefinitionOrganization Symptoms Based on Symptom True ProblemTwenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association in a major city.Membership has been declining for years. New water park with wave pool and water slides moved into town a few years ago.Neighborhood residents prefer the expensive water park and have negative image of swimming pool.Demographic changes: Children in this 20-year-old neighborhood have grown up. Older residents no longer swim anywhere.
12 Influences of definition FeedbackSpecificObjective IStatementof ProblemBroadResearchObjectivesSpecificObjective IIResearchDesignResultsExploratoryResearch(Optional)SpecificObjective III
13 Basic Questions - Problem Definition What is the purpose of the study?How much is already known?Is additional background information necessary?What is to be measured? How?Can the data be made available?Should research be conducted?Can a hypothesis be formulated?
14 Basic Questions - Basic Research Design What types of questions need to be answered?Are descriptive or causal findings required?What is the source of the data?
15 Basic Questions - Basic Research Design Can objective answers be obtained by asking people?How quickly is the information needed?How should survey questions be worded?How should experimental manipulations be made?