4 Uncertainty Influences the Type of Research CAUSAL ORDESCRIPTIVECOMPLETELYCERTAINABSOLUTEAMBIGUITYEXPLORATORY
5 Degree of Problem Definition Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research(Unaware of Problem) (Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly Defined)“Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying “Will buyers purchase more ofwe don’t know why.” our product? Who buys our our products in a new package?competitor’s product?”“Would people be interested “Which of two advertisingin our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer campaigns is more effective?”in our product?”possible situation
11 Descriptive ResearchDescribes characteristics of a population or phenomenonSome understanding of the nature of the problem
12 “I keep six honest serving men, (they taught me all I knew), their names are what,and why,and when,and how,and whereand who.”--Rudyard Kipling
13 Descriptive Research Example Weight Watchers average customer:Woman about 40 years oldHousehold income of about $50,000At least some college educationTrying to juggle children and a job
14 Descriptive Research Example Men’s fragrance market:1/3 size of women’s fragrance marketBut growing at a faster paceWomen buy 80 % of men’s fragrances
15 Causal ResearchConducted to identify cause-and-effect relationships
16 IDENTIFYING CAUSALITY A causal relationship is impossible to prove.Evidence of causality:1. The appropriate causal order of events2. Concomitant variation--two phenomena varytogether3. An absence of alternative plausible explanations
17 Stages of the Research Process Problem Discoveryand DefinitionDiscovery andDefinitionand so onResearchDesignConclusions andReportSamplingData Processingand AnalysisDataGathering
18 Research Stages Cyclical process - conclusions generate new ideas Stages can overlap chronologicallyStages are functionally interrelatedForward linkagesBackward linkages
19 Problem discovery Selection of exploratory research technique and DefinitionSamplingSelection ofexploratory researchtechniqueProbabilityNonprobabilitySecondary(historical)dataExperiencesurveyPilotstudyCasestudyCollection ofdata(fieldwork)DataGatheringDataProcessingandAnalysisEditing andcodingdataProblem definition(statement ofresearch objectives)DataprocessingSelection ofbasic researchmethodResearch DesignConclusionsand ReportInterpretationoffindingsExperimentSurveyObservationSecondaryData StudyReportLaboratoryFieldInterviewQuestionnaire
20 The Marketing Research Process Problem DiscoverySelection of Sample DesignExploratory ResearchCollection of the DataSelection of the Basic Research Method
21 The Research Process (cont.) Editing and CodingReportData ProcessingInterpretation of the Findings
22 Research ProposalA written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the studyDetailed outline of procedures associated with a particular methodology
23 Problem Discovery and Definition First stepProblem, opportunity, or monitor operationsDiscovery before definitionProblem means management problem
24 Defining Problem Results in Clear Cut Research Objectives Symptom DetectionAnalysis ofthe SituationExploratoryResearch(Optional)Problem DefinitionStatement ofResearch Objectives
25 “The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution” Albert Einstein
26 State the research questions and research objectives
27 HypothesisA statement that can be refuted by empirical data
28 If you do not know where you are going, any road will take you there.
29 Research Design Master plan Framework for action Specifies methods and procedures
30 Selecting a Sample Sample: subset SAMPLE of a larger population.
31 Sampling Who is to be sampled? How large a sample? How will sample units be selected?