CULTURE The values , beliefs, behavior, and material objects that, together, form a people’s way of life.
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1 CULTUREThe values , beliefs, behavior, and material objects that, together, form a people’s way of life
2 Terminology Nonmaterial culture Material culture Culture shock The intangible world of ideas created by members of a societyMaterial cultureThe tangible things created by members of a societyCulture shockPersonal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
3 Terminology CULTURE SHOCK ETHNOCENTRISM CULTURAL RELATIVISM DISORIENTATION DUE TO THE INABILITY TO MAKE SENSE OUT OF ONE’S SURROUNDINGSDOMESTIC AND FOREIGN TRAVELETHNOCENTRISMA BIASED “CULTURAL YARDSTICK”CULTURAL RELATIVISMMORE ACCURATE UNDERSTANDING
4 SYMBOLSANYTHING THAT CARRIES A PARTICULAR MEANING RECOGNIZED BY PEOPLE WHO SHARE CULTUREREALITY FOR HUMANS IS FOUND IN THE MEANING THINGS CARRY WITH THEMTHE BASIS OF CULTURE; MAKES LIFE POSSIBLEPEOPLE MUST BE MINDFUL THAT MEANINGS VARY FROM CULTURE TO CULTUREWHY AMERICANS ARE AT TIMES CALLED “UGLY”MEANINGS CAN EVEN VARY GREATLY WITHIN THE SAME GROUPS OF PEOPLEFUR COATS, CONFEDERATE FLAGS, ETC.
5 LANGUAGE CULTURAL TRANSMISSION SAPIR-WHORF HYPOTHESIS A SYSTEM OF SYMBOLS THAT ALLOWS PEOPLE TO COMMUNICATE WITH ONE ANOTHERCULTURAL TRANSMISSIONthe process by which one generation passes culture to the nextSAPIR-WHORF HYPOTHESISPeople perceive the world through the cultural lens of languageNON-VERBAL LANGUAGEBEWARE OF USING GESTURES
6 VALUES SUPPORT BELIEFS VALUES & BELIEFSVALUESCULTURALLY DEFINED STANDARDS OF DESIRABILITY, GOODNESS, AND BEAUTY, WHICH SERVE AS BROAD GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL LIVINGVALUES SUPPORT BELIEFSBELIEFSSPECIFIC STATEMENTS THAT PEOPLE HOLD TO BE TRUE
7 Robin Williams’ 10 Widespread Values That Are Central to Our American Way of Life Equal opportunityAchievement and successMaterial comfortActivity and workPracticality and workProgressScienceDemocracy and free enterpriseFreedomRacism and group superiorityAre some of these values inconsistent with one another?
8 NORMSRules and expectations by which society guides the behavior of its membersTYPESPROSCRIPTIVEShould nots, prohibitedPRESCRIPTIVEShoulds, prescribed like medicineFURTHER BREAKDOWNFOLKWAYSNorms for routine and causal interactionMORESWidely observed and have great moral Significance
9 SOCIAL CONTROLVarious means by which members of society encourage conformity to normsGUILTA negative judgment we make about ourselvesSHAMEThe painful sense that others disapprove of our actions
10 IDEAL VS. REAL CULTURE IDEAL CULTURE REAL CULTURE THE WAY THINGS SHOULD BESOCIAL PATTERNS MANDATED BY VALUES AND NORMSREAL CULTURETHEY WAY THINGS ACTUALLY OCCUR IN EVERYDAY LIFESOCIAL PATTERNS THAT ONLY APPROXIMATE CULTURAL EXPECTATIONS
11 Cultural Diversity High culture Popular culture Subculture Cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elitePopular cultureCultural patterns that are widespread among society’s populationSubcultureCultural patterns set apart some segment of society’s populationCountercultureCultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
12 MulticulturalismAn educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting the equality of all cultural traditionsEurocentrism – the dominance of European (especially English) cultural patternsAfrocentrism – the dominance of African cultural patterns
13 INTERDEPENDENCE CULTURE INTEGRATION CULTURE LAG The close relationships among various elements of a cultural systemEXAMPLE: COMPUTERS AND CHANGES IN OUR LANGUAGECULTURE LAGThe fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, which may disrupt a cultural systemEXAMPLE: MEDICAL PROCEDURES AND ETHICS
14 CULTURE CHANGES IN THREE WAYS INVENTION - creating new cultural elementsTelephone or airplaneDISCOVERY – recognizing and better understanding of something already in existenceX-rays or DNADIFFUSION – the spread of cultural traits from one society to anotherJazz music or much of the English language
15 Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own cultureCultural relativismThe practice of judging a culture by its own standards
16 IS THERE A GLOBAL CULTURE? THE BASIC THESIS:THE FLOW OF GOODSMATERIAL PRODUCT TRADING HAS NEVER BEEN AS IMPORTANTSOME HATE WHAT CAN BE CALLED THE “AMERICANIZATION OF THE WORLD”THE FLOW OF INFORMATIONTHERE ARE FEW, IF ANY, PLACES LEFT ON EARTH WHERE WORLDWIDE COMMUNICATION IS NOT POSSIBLETHE FLOW OF PEOPLEKNOWLEDGE MEANS PEOPLE LEARN ABOUT PLACES ON EARTH WHERE THEY FEEL LIFE MAY BE BETTERPROBLEMS WITH THIS THESIS?ALL THE FLOWS HAVE BEEN UNEVENASSUMES AFFORDABILITY OF GOODSPEOPLE DON’T ATTACH THE SAME MEANING TO MATERIAL GOODS
17 Theoretical Analysis Structural Functional Cultural is a complex strategy for meeting human needsCultural Universals – traits that are part of every known culture and include:Family, Funeral Rites & JokesCritical evaluationIgnores cultural diversity and downplays importance of change
18 Theoretical Analysis Social-Conflict Critical evaluation Cultural traits benefit some members at the expense of othersApproach rooted in Karl Marx and materialism – society’s system of material production has a powerful effect on the rest of a cultureCritical evaluationUnderstates the ways cultural patterns integrate members into society
19 Theoretical Analysis Sociobiology Critical evaluation A theoretical paradigm that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create cultureApproach rooted in Charles Darwin and evolution – livings organism change over long periods of time based on natural selectionCritical evaluationMay be used to support racism or sexismLittle evidence to support theory, people learn behavior within a cultural system
20 Freedom Vs. Constraint Culture as constraint Culture as freedom We only know our world in terms of our cultureCulture as freedomCulture is changing and offers a variety of opportunities