Presentation on theme: "Chapter Two Culture Society, The Basics 10th Edition John J. Macionis."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter Two CultureSociety, The Basics10th EditionJohn J. Macionis
2 What is Culture?Culture – the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people’s way of lifeOnly humans rely on culture rather than instinct to ensure survival.
3 What is Culture?Nonmaterial culture – ideas created by members of a society.Material culture – tangible things created by members of a society.
4 What is Culture?Society refers to people who interact in a defined territory and share culture.Culture shock refers to personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life.
5 How Many Cultures? One indication of culture is language Global estimates document 7,000 languagesIn the USA, there are about 200 languagesUpcoming decades will show the disappearance of hundreds of languages
6 The Elements of Culture Although cultures vary, they all have five common components:(1) Symbols(2) Language(3) Values and Beliefs(4) Norms(5) Ideal and RealCulture
7 Elements of Culture Symbols Symbols – anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture.
8 Elements of Culture Symbols Symbols – collective creationsGeneral MarketingAimed at a total populationSegmented (section) MarketingAimed at a specific population
9 Elements of Culture Language Language – a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another.Language allows for the continuity of culture.BBC
10 Elements of Culture Language Cultural transmission (Oral traditions) – the process by which one generation passes culture to the next.Every society transmits culture through speech.
11 The Sapir-Whorf Thesis Languages are not just different sets of labels for the same reality.All languages fuse symbols with distinctive emotions.The Sapir-Whorf Thesis – people perceive the world through the cultural lens of language.
12 Don’t writeFor example, Margaret Mead pointed out that some of the South Pacific people whom she studied did not have a word for "war" in their vocabularies. Interestingly, these people did not participate in war. So, the hypothesis is that we must be able to think of some phenomenon before we can name it or experience it.
13 Elements of Culture Values and Beliefs Values – culturally defined standards by which people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty and that serve as broad guidelines for social living.Values are abstract standards of goodness.
14 Don’t writeIf someone values hard work, that someone will go out of their way to shower a hard worker with praise, bonuses and other benefits. If someone values honesty, they avoid lying and reward honesty from those in their lives.
15 Elements of Culture Values and Beliefs Beliefs – specific statements that people hold to be true.Beliefs are particular matters that individuals consider true or false.
16 Elements of CultureSocieties show significant cultural variations in their favorite sports.Canada: Ice HockeyJamaica: CricketThailand: Kite flyingChina: tai chi chuan
17 Key Values of United States Culture Robin M. Williams, Jr.Equal OpportunityAchievement and SuccessMaterial ComfortActivity and WorkPracticality and Efficiency
18 Key Values of United States Culture Robin M. Williams, Jr.ProgressScienceDemocracy and Free EnterpriseFreedomRacism and Group Superiority
19 Elements of Culture Norms Norms – rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members.Most important norms in a culture apply everywhere and at all times.
20 Elements of Culture Norms Mores – norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance. (Ex. Rape)Folkways – norms for routine, casual interaction. (Eating Big Macs, using Deodorant)
21 Elements of Culture Norms MoresSocietal taboos such as:MurderTreasonChild sexual abuseInspire intense reactionsPunishment inevitably follows(Right vs. wrong)
22 Elements of Culture Norms Folkways (polite vs. rude) –People chew quietly with mouths closedAccepting one’s place in linePeople avoid facing each other in elevatorsNo written rulesNo one physically harmed
23 Technology & Culture Sociocultural evolution Material culture also reflects a society’s technology – knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings.Sociocultural evolution
24 Technology and Culture hunting and gathering societieshorticultural & pastoralismagricultureindustrypostindustrial information technology
25 Cultural Diversity Cultural diversity can involve social class. Many cultural patterns are readily accessible to only some members of a society.
26 Cultural DiversityHigh culture – cultural patterns that distinguish a society’s elitePopular culture – cultural patterns that are widespread among a population.
27 SubculturesSubculture – cultural patterns that set apart some segment of society’s population. (Ex: Amish and Mormons)
28 MulticulturalismMulticulturalism – an educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting the equality of all cultural traditions.
29 MulticulturalismAfrocentrism – the dominance of African cultural patterns.Eurocentrism – the dominance of European cultural patterns.
30 CountercultureCounterculture – cultural patterns that rejects and opposes those widely accepted within a society.Examples:Hippies of the 60’sStreet GangsHare KrishnaExtreme right-wing religious groups
31 Cultural ChangeCultural integration – the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system.Some elements of culture change faster than others – cultural lag.
32 Cultural Change Cultural integration Women in the workforce Examples:Women in the workforceLater first marriagesChange in family patternsIncreased use of day care
33 Cultural Change Cultural lag Contraception Increased availability Examples:ContraceptionIncreased availabilityUse by adolescentsMedical AdvancesLittle or no ability to provide higher quality of life
34 Cultural Change Cultural changes New cultural elements Cell phones BlackberryiPhonesDiffusionSpread of objects from one society to another
35 Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Ethnocentrism – the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own culture.
36 Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Cultural Relativism – the practice of evaluating a culture by that culture’s own standards.Cultural Universals
37 A Global Culture Global economy: the flow of goods Global communication: the flow of informationGlobal migration: the flow of people
38 Theoretical Analysis of Culture The structural–functional paradigm depicts culture as a complex strategy for meeting human needs.The social–conflict paradigm suggests that many cultural traits function to the advantage of some and the disadvantage of others.Sociobiology explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture.