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By: Kristina Pesce and Olivia Stephens 2 nd period.

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1 By: Kristina Pesce and Olivia Stephens 2 nd period


3 Integrated Starter/Generator(ISG)

4 Diesel Engines

5 Variable Valve Timing and Lift

6 Direct Fuel Injection

7 Cylinder Deactivation

8 Turbo Charging

9 Power Steering Pump

10 Continuously Variable Transmission(CVT)

11 Automated Manual Transmission(AMT)

12 Improvements to tire tread, tire belts, and shoulder design

13 Smoothed Shaped Vehicles

14 Using lighter weight technologies and materials when building cars

15 The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) Regulations initiated by Congress in 1975 Intended to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks It is the mpg of cars and light trucks that don’t go over 8,500 pounds The standard for passenger cars is 27.5 mpg and the standard for SUVs and light trucks is 22.2 mpg In 2011 the standard will change to include larger vehicles When first enacted the fuel economy dramatically increased then quickly declined back down again but as of recently it has started to slowly improve once more The standards have not changed since the 1980s

16 Electric Cars An electric motor is used in place of a gas powered engine. The motor is in turn powered by a controller which draws its energy from rechargeable, electric batteries. Cut pollution emissions up to 50% compared to gasoline powered cars Most argue that they use energy more efficiently One con is that when electric cars crash the batteries can get wired, a risk that some consider heavier than the benefits Require a long time to recharge and there are few places beside home where cars can be charged Can have high repair cost Are quieter than other cars

17 gasoline-and-electric-car.gif

18 Hybrid Cars Most feature ISGs Cut emission rates by up to 35% One con is there is not an efficient/safe way to dispose of the batteries and motors The metal materials used in the batteries and motors are rare and can cause environmental degradation to access There are government tax breaks if you buy a hybrid They run half and half on energy from electric and gas Typical 8 year warranty for the vehicle system Tend to be more costly than average gasoline powered cars Quieter than average cars Save more money on gas Factories creating hybrid cars can create as much or more pollution as factories creating gasoline powered cars Gas engine can help recharge electric battery while driving and if needed can switch over

19 Plug-In Hybrid Cars Runs on gasoline and electricity like regular hybrid cars but has specific modifications: Larger battery packs which can be recharged using common household electricity Can drive very long distances without using any gasoline at all Can run on biofuel which helps reduce its use of gas It is not possible for an individual consumer to buy one but they are in the testing stage


21 Wal-Mart Trucks Going Green

22 Will save $52 billion per year in fuel costs Already has more than 100 hybrids in operation 7,200 trucks already 15% fuel efficient Keeps driver warm without keeping the engine on Trucks now average about 7 mpg with 80,000 pound load Promises to double fuel efficiency of trucks from 6.5 to 13 mpgs by 2015 The changes help to keep 26 billion pounds of carbon dioxide out of the air by 2020 l Wal-Mart Continued

23 Nissan Leaf First affordable car that claims to have 0 emissions and is 100% electric Due to be released by the end of this year It runs on laminated compact lithium-ion batteries It can seat up to 5 adults and has a 100 mile range 80% of its battery can be charged in as little as 30 minutes Has LED headlights that only consume 10% power of that of traditional lamps It claims to get 367 miles a gallon

24 Chevrolet Volt It has a 40 mile range It is going to be launched in November of this year It can run efficiently without being plugged in for days but gets top performance when charged everyday Takes 8 hours to fully charge when using a normal outlet Can charge in as little as 3 hours when a 240v outlet is used



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