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Transportation Issues. US Cars and Drivers US Population: 300 million Licensed drivers 190 million Cars and light trucks. 210 million.

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Presentation on theme: "Transportation Issues. US Cars and Drivers US Population: 300 million Licensed drivers 190 million Cars and light trucks. 210 million."— Presentation transcript:

1 Transportation Issues

2 US Cars and Drivers US Population: 300 million Licensed drivers 190 million Cars and light trucks. 210 million

3 US Cars and Drivers We spend $20 out of every $100 of household $$ on our cars. Very little travel (2%) is by mass transit (buses and trains)

4 Problems Air pollution Global Warming Oil Imports Gasoline Prices Future Oil Supplies

5 What can we do?

6 Transportation: Air Pollution

7 Air Pollution – Sources

8 Internal Combustion Engine

9 Pollutants

10 Photochemical Smog

11 Ozone

12 Acid Rain


14 The Environmental Protection Agency

15 Clean Air Acts 1955, 1963, 1970, 1990

16 Clean Air Act of 1990

17 Where are the problem areas?

18 How are emission standards achieved?

19 Catalytic Converter

20 Command and Control Strategy

21 Tailpipe Emissions Testing in Connecticut

22 EPA Strategies Have Worked for Pollution Emission by cars. Even though vehicle miles increased by 150%, emission have substantially decreased.

23 Cars also emit CO2

24 Global Warming 20 lb CO2 emitted for every gallon of gasoline consumed. Transportation accounts for 25% of Global greenhouse gas emissions

25 Beyond Gasoline: Drive Less

26 Drive Less - Walk

27 Drive Less - Bicycle

28 Drive Less – Mass Transit

29 Drive Less - Subway

30 Drive Less - Carpool

31 Drive Less – Urban Planning

32 Drive Less – Summary Many people like flexibility and safety of cars Many people like suburbs. Mass transit systems requires large $$ investments. Will take many years to transform suburbs into “new towns” Part of the solution, but not the whole solution.

33 Beyond Gasoline: Biofuels

34 Ethanol

35 Gasohol (E10)

36 E85 – alternate fuel

37 Flex Fuel Vehicle

38 Brazil Sugar cane Gas stations have E25 or E100

39 Ethanol from Cellulose

40 Biodiesel

41 Biodiesel Fuel Processed diesel fuel derived from biological sources. Used in unmodified diesel engines.

42 Limitations B20 - unmodified diesel engines B100 - requires modifications Gelling problem

43 Beyond Gasoline: Concept Cars

44 EV Electric Cars have not been successful. Large heavy batteries Short driving range Slow refueling (recharging) process.

45 GM EV-1 Produced by GM from 1996-199.

46 Tesla Tesla Roadster may represent a new direction. Uses new lighter batteries. Expensive.

47 GM Volt Li-Ion batteries and a gasoline engine. The gasoline engine will run a generator to recharge the batteries, but will not directly power the vehicle. (no gasoline motor)

48 Fuel Cell Vehicles

49 Internal Combustion Engine Engine – 20% efficient Only 20% of gasoline energy is converted to motion.

50 Fuel Cells and the Hydrogen Economy Fuels Cells use hydrogen to produce electrical energy. They do not burn hydrogen. 2H 2 +O 2  2H 2 O + energy Fuel cells could be used to power cars with hydrogen as the fuel. Clean fuel


52 Barriers to Hydrogen Cars Still in development Expensive On-vehicle storage of hydrogen fuel Availability of hydrogen fuel Infrastructure

53 Hydrogen Sources Steam reforming of natural gas: CH 4 +2H 2 O  CO 2 + 4H 2 Electrolysis: 2H 2 O + energy  2H 2 + O 2

54 Energy Source for Electrolyzer Electrolysis requires energy. Energy could come from Solar, Nuclear, or Wind. In the short term, it would probably come from coal.

55 Beyond Gasoline: Fuel Economy

56 CAFE Standards Corporate Average Fuel Economy Mileage requirements for new vehicles

57 Current CAFE Standards 27.5 mpg for passenger automobiles 20.7 mpg for light trucks & SUVs

58 How do we make cars that use less gasoline? Reduce wind drag Reduce weight More efficient engines and drive trains

59 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Gasoline Engine Electric motor Does not need to be recharged

60 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

61 Some Examples of 2008 Fuel Efficient Models

62 Toyota Prius Sedan $22,200 Hybrid 48 mpg 110 hp

63 Plug-In Hybrid (PHEV)

64 Honda Civic Hybrid Sedan $22,600 Hybrid 45 mpg 110 hp

65 Toyota Yaris Liftback Sedan $11,000 Gasoline 40 mpg 106hp

66 Honda Fit 5-Door $13,900 Gasoline 37 mpg 109 hp

67 Honda Civic EX Sedan $18,700 Gasoline 37 mpg 140 hp

68 Ford Escape Hybrid SUV $26,000 Hybrid 30 mpg 230 hp

69 How long does it take to change the US auto fleet? 210 million cars and light trucks in US 19 million new cars and trucks each year 200,000 new HEVs in 2005. Vehicles last 140,000 miles or 10 years Changing rolling stock takes several years.

70 Policies – Feebate Extra fee to buy a gasoline SUV Rebate when buying a HEV Nissan Armada: 13 mpg

71 Links s.html ne.asp

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