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Who is Jesus?: Searching in the New Testament and Beyond Chapter 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Who is Jesus?: Searching in the New Testament and Beyond Chapter 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Who is Jesus?: Searching in the New Testament and Beyond Chapter 1

2 Who do you say that I am? In Luke 9:18-21, Jesus asks His disciples who do you say that I am They respond by saying John the Baptist and Elijah Peter answered Messiah Messiah: anointed one

3 The Power of the Cross Christianity essentially starts at the Cross Without the death and resurrection of Jesus, Christianity does not take hold The resurrection is the most pivotal moment for Christians

4 Christology Christology: the study of Christ logy: means “the study of” Christians: followers of Christ First place Christians were called Christians was at Antioch (Acts 11:26)

5 The “titles” of Jesus Jesus was called: teacher, rabbi, prophet However, after his death and resurrection the titles he received were Lord, Redeemer, Savior, the Christ, Son of God

6 Jesus of Nazareth A historical figure who lived 2,000 years ago Was a Palestinian Jew Jesus of History: the divine Son of God who walked on the earth in the person of Jesus Christ of Faith: the Savior who was raised from the dead and brought to new life

7 Three questions to be explored in this course Who was the Jesus of History, the man who lived nearly 2,000 years ago in a place called Palestine? Why was this man, Jesus, the crucified one, so quickly recognized by the early Christians as the Christ of Faith, the anointed one sent by God to free them from all evil? How did the Church come to recognize Jesus as the Son of God who offered salvation to all of humanity?

8 Knowing Jesus the Christ What are ways we know who Jesus is? Biblical scholars: those men and women who concentrate on studying the Bible Theologians: those who study the history, beliefs and teachings of the Church Best place to start is by turning to Scripture –Primary source

9 Scripture Scripture is comprised of the Old and New Testament Testament: means covenant—a solemn promise between two people

10 Old Testament Comprised of 46 books Discusses the covenant God made with the people of Israel Central to the Jewish faith and OUR faith

11 New Testament New Testament is God’s new covenant through Jesus the Christ It is comprised of 27 books The NT is central to OUR faith

12 Inspiration Inspired Texts: writings whose authors, prompted by the Holy Spirit, convey God’s revealed truth using their own abilities, words and styles It is important to know that these writers were influenced by the world around them

13 Gospels Comprised of Matthew, Mark Luke and John The Gospels give us a detailed account of Jesus’ life and ministry Gospel means “Good News”

14 Historical References to Jesus

15 Josephus Was a Jewish historian Mentioned Jesus roughly 60 years after Jesus’ death He refers to Jesus as, “a wise man…a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of men who receive the truth with pleasure” He also notes Jesus’ crucifixion

16 Tacitus A Roman historian who noted Jesus when discussing the “Great” fire of Rome that Nero blamed on Christians in 64 AD Tacitus’ writings are called into question regarding Nero’s reaction

17 Pliny the Younger Pliny the Younger was a Roman governor who asked the Emperor Trajan how to deal with the Christians It was written around 110 AD

18 Suetonius A Roman historian and lawyer who wrote around 120 AD Even at 120 AD Suetonius notes that Christians were still referred to as Jews

19 How the New Testament Came About Written over a period of 50 years Actual canon was decided upon about 150 years after Jesus’ death and Resurrection Canon: comes from the Greek word for “rule” or “standard”

20 Acts of the Apostles Written by the Gospel writer Luke Details the early days of the Christian community under the leadership of St. Peter Focuses on the missionary work of St. Paul Acts is the second part of a two volume work

21 Pauline Epistles There are 13 Pauline Epistles Epistle: mean’s letter Dispute over whether or not Paul actually wrote every epistle Paul’s Letter to the Thessalonians is considered the first New Testament writing written around 50 AD

22 The Letter to the Hebrews Early on was thought to have been one of Paul’s epistles However, it is not in letter form and is more like a sermon

23 The Catholic Epistles Letters attributed to: James, Peter (two letters), John (three letters) and Jude Called Catholic because they are general or universal epistles

24 The Book of Revelation Often referred to as the Apocalypse—in Greek Apocalypse means “revelation” Written during the late First Century

25 The Gospels: Central Sources for Understanding Jesus

26 Why are they faith sources? Objectivity: the reporting of facts alone, without interpreting through a personal viewpoint Different perspectives of the Gospel writers All historical events are recorded during the eyes or perspective of the person doing the reporting

27 Gospels: Faith Source Gospel derives from the Middle English word godspell or good news In Greek gospel comes from the word evangelion meaning “the proclamation or announcement of good news” Thus, Gospels are testimonies of faith

28 Religious Truth Biblical writers are not concerned so much with historical fact as they are with the religious message Because we believe the Holy Spirit guided their writings, we believe they contain the essential truth of Jesus the Christ

29 The Different Perspectives Biblical writers tell us the essential truth of who the Son of God is The Son of God: the one who fully reveals to humanity the very nature of God in his person Each writer provides a much fuller account of who Jesus was

30 Catholicism and Tradition The Holy Spirit not only guided biblical writers but it continues to lead Church leaders Tradition: official teachings and practices of the Catholic Church Thus, Scripture and Tradition guide what we hold to be true

31 The Development of the Gospels

32 Stage 1: Jesus of Nazareth and His Disciples Gospels are centered on the historical Jesus Certain facts about Jesus: –A Jew born sometime around 5 BC in the town of Nazareth –Around the age of 30 he began his public ministry –His public ministry angered many Jewish leaders and Roman officials –Around 30 AD he was found guilty under Roman laws and was executed

33 The Resurrection Pivotal for Christians Became the identifying mark for all Christians— their belief that Jesus is the Lord and Savior By calling Jesus Lord it was a HUGE assertion “If Christ has not been raised, then our proclamation has been in vain and your faith has been in vain.”

34 What Does Christ Mean? Many around the Christians felt Jesus was nothing more than a carpenters son who preached a radical message and paid for it with his life Jesus’ name was not uncommon for Jewish males—Jesus translates to Yeshua in Hebrew Greek word Christos means messiah in Hebrew

35 Stage 2: The Disciples and the Early Community of Faith “And we bring you the Good News that what God promised to our ancestors he has fulfilled for us, their children, by raising Jesus” Jesus’ words and works were handed down via oral tradition Oral Tradition: history handed down via word of mouth

36 Stage 3: The Early Community of Faith and the Evangelists Oral tradition regarding Jesus was not put into writing until about 70AD with Mark’s Gospel Reasons to put oral tradition into writing: the passage of time and the need for continued inspiration

37 The Passage of Time and Continued Instruction As early Christians recognized that they were becoming a new “church” and that Jesus was not returning anytime soon, they felt a need to preserve the message of Jesus Gospel writers then preserved that message writing in a way that would inspire future Christians

38 The Gospels: Four Portraits of Jesus the Christ

39 Synoptic Gospels Gospels that present Jesus’ public life in similar ways Synoptic = similar 3 of 4 Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke) Q Source: another source believed to have existed that contributed to writing Matthew and Luke

40 Synoptic Gospels Gospels Mark 70 AD Matthew 80 AD Luke 85 AD

41 Mark’s Portrait: The Human Jesus No one knows for sure who wrote Mark’s Gospel Possible writer is a companion of the early Apostles named John Mark Written around 70 AD and is the earliest Gospel Mark references suffering a lot in his Gospel; many believe that this could be in response to early persecution

42 Who was Mark’s Audience? Mark’s Gospel was written for the Church established in Rome and the Gentiles Gentile: non-Jewish Emphasized the human suffering of Jesus during the crucifixion— relating to the human suffering of the early Christians

43 Why Show Jesus’ Humanity? Early Christians debated the humanity and divinity of Christ Mark may have been trying to counter the divinity movement

44 Luke’s Portrait: Jesus as the Compassionate Savior Luke is the first of a two-volume history of early Christianity (Acts of the Apostles is the second volume) Luke is known as the Gospel of Jesus Acts is considered the Acts of the Holy Spirit

45 Who is Luke? There are debates as to who Luke is Many scholars believe that Luke was a companion of St. Paul The companion to St. Paul named Luke was a medical doctor Patron: someone who supports others with money Others believe he was writing for a wealthy patron—possibly Theophilus

46 Who was he writing to? Writing to other Christians to help them understand their faith better Luke emphasizes the role of the Holy Spirit Stresses Jesus’ mercy and compassion Stresses the importance of reaching out to the social outcasts of society

47 Mathew’s Portrait: Jesus the Messiah of the Jews Early scholars believed that he was the Apostle Matthew Problem with this theory is that the author relies so much on Mark and Luke If he was an “eyewitness” why would he rely on other accounts?

48 Who was it written for? Structure is very different from other three synoptic Gospels Matthew is an Old Testament scholar He is writing primarily to the Jews Known as the “Church Gospel” because it deals with the structure of the Church

49 John’s Portrait: Jesus as the Divine Son of God Early Church leaders believed that the writer of John was the Apostle John Others believe that he is the mysterious “Beloved Apostle” of Jesus Today, they believe he was a student of the “Beloved Apostle” Late date makes it impossible to be a companion of Jesus

50 Who was it written for? John drives home hard the point that Jesus is the Divine Son of God Very prayerful and most commonly used in prayer ceremonies Author also could have written the Book of Revelation

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