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Propaganda Techniques

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1 Propaganda Techniques
Made with the assistance of the AP students from

2 Propaganda Quotes A propagandist is a specialist in selling attitudes and opinions. Author: Hans Speier Propaganda must not serve the truth, especially insofar as it might bring out something favorable for the opponent. Author: Goebbels

3 What is propaganda? The spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person. Most associate the term with the dissemination of ideas and beliefs, either disguised or not. Widely used in the advertising industry Can be used to promote consumerism or political views Can use emotional, ethical, and/or logical appeal.

4 What are persuasive techniques?
devices of persuasion used for the purpose of changing one’s mind, making one take action, or both; usually accomplished by a combination of emotional appeals and logical reasoning

5 What is the connection? Propaganda is an implementation of persuasive techniques in order to spread ideas, information, for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person. You can’t have propaganda without persuasive techniques.

6 Etymology The term originates with the Sacred Congregation for the spreading of the Faith (sacra congregatio christiano nomini propagando or Congregatio de Propaganda Fide), which was founded by Pope Gregory XV in 1622, shortly after the start of the Thirty Years' War. This department of the pontifical administration charged with the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in mission territory. The Latin stem propagationem- (from pro- "forth" + *pag-, root of pangere "to fasten"), conveys a sense of "that which ought to be spread" and does not refer to misleading information. The modern sense dates from World War I, when the term evolved to be mainly associated with politics.

7 Early Propaganda The stereotypical type of propaganda
The type that is likely the earliest used Books Radio Reports Leaflets Speeches

8 Propaganda in the 21st Century
Advertisements Commercials Websites Blogs Posters Articles Leaflets Movies Art

9 Types of Propaganda Techniques: The BIG 7
Name calling Glittering Generalities Transfer Testimonial Plain Folks Card Stacking Band Wagon

10 Other Persuasive Techniques
Humor Loaded language Fear and insecurities Sex appeal Something for nothing Science & statistics Comparisons & negatives Snob appeal Repetition Rhetorical Question Direct Command Cuteness factor

11 Can you spot the name calling?
Appeal to the audience’s hate and fear by giving bad names to opponents. Often dehumanizes and belittles the opponent to make it easier for the audience to hate them. Can you spot the name calling?

12 Name Calling Insults the opposition May be a veiled or obvious insult
Often used in politics to insult the other party There usually is no evidence to support the claims

13 Name Calling Causes audience to associate the opponent with negative ideas No longer does the audience see any good in the opponent

14 Name Calling

15 Name Calling from WWII

16 Glittering Generalities
Makes broad, unsupported statements often using “all”, “every”, “always”, or “never” to make your case to the audience. Strength Patriotism Which of these words could be used with a glittering generality? Democracy Freedom Sure, they are all examples of words that invoke emotion and need not be supported in most cases.

17 Glittering Generalities
Essentially the opposite of Name Calling Attaches positive words and phrases to a subject Doesn’t specify reasons or give explanations-- the claims the propaganda makes are often too good to be true

18 Glittering Generalities
This image depicts Saddam Hussein as a strong leader in times of crisis—but does it really show that? Does the fact that he is talking on the telephone signify that he is in control?

19 Glittering Generalities
Uses charged words that lead to the reader believing what is said Also makes generalized statements Words such as “all”, “every”, “none”

20 Glittering Generalities
Uses very vague words that the audience immediately relates to and accepts Often uses words such as all or always without providing much support

21 Transfer See any transfer?
This propaganda technique depends upon the principle of favorable association, even though there may be little or no logical connection. In one variety the subject may be identified with some idea or entity (God or country) that is inherently pleasing or attractive. Another variety uses the prestige or reputation of a respected person or institution to support an idea. See any transfer? The American flag in the background associates Clinton with the ideas of democracy, patriotism, and nationalism.

22 Transfer Gives the power, reputation, or emotions associated with something to the propaganda Examples: Uncle Sam, the American flag, the Founding Fathers

23 Transfer This WWII ad calls for the support of the war, and is connected with the image of Winston Churchill. Winston Churchill is an honorable man and he needs your help with the war. Won’t you support him?

24 Transfer Makes associations to symbols or ideas such as the nation or religious symbols A connection between the position and the symbol/idea is often lacking

25 Transfer

26 This transfers the importance and power of Mao Zedong to the importance and power of education

27 Testimonials Where’s the testimonial?
Uses comments and endorsement from supporters to make your position more attractive to the audience. This is “pseudo-inductive reasoning.” Where’s the testimonial? Nicely done. Remember that some testimonials may not be reliable.

28 Testimonial Uses a customer’s reaction to persuade the audience
Lauds the product, sometimes compares to a competitor Creates pseudo-inductive reasoning Often can be turned into a syllogistic argument "We loved the idea of the Million Dollar Homepage and thought we had nothing to lose by spending a few hundred dollars, placing the Peerclix green smilie icon on the homepage. Wow! After just TWO DAYS, we've seen visitors to our PeerclixPSP site nearly double, all for a $400 dollar investment. We'll definitely be buying more pixels for our PeerclixiPod 'Nano' site launching at the end of the month." Simon MacTaggart

29 Testimonials Uses the words of others who are in support of the idea or product Problem arises when the person has no expertise Often employs testimonials from famous people

30 Testimonial

31 Testimonial Testimonial uses the endorsement of those who have purchased the product and benefited from it. This hairy man looks much better after using the product, so it will work for you too.

32 Celebrity Endorsement
Harrison Ford endorses this drink: this method suggests to the audience that since celebrities drink this, you will feel like a celebrity if you purchase this product.

33 Celebrity Endorsement
Many people like and admire Tiger Woods as a golf player. The advertisers hope that consumers will think, “if Tiger Woods supports this company, we should support it too.”

34 Yeah, they’re pretty generic people.
Plain Folks Appeals to common, average reader making product or position seem honest and authentic. Locate the Plain Folks. Yeah, they’re pretty generic people.

35 Plain Folks Uses ‘normal people’ to appeal to the masses
Used by politicians to gain support by creating a bond with the voters

36 Plain Folks Tries to win our confidence by being “just like us”
Especially common during election years

37 Plain Folks: The common person can help.

38 This ad for Macintosh computers uses the plain folks technique. The Mac looks much more average and nice than the PC.

39 Plain Folks This appeals to the common, average reader by suggesting that the product is honest and authentic. This happy average family is enjoying the protection of Allstate insurance. Don’t you want your family to benefit from all state?

40 Plain Folks

41 Plain Folks Appeals to the common people
The idea or product is essentially for the people Makes the idea or product look honest and trustworthy

42 These guys. AKA everybody. And…
Bandwagon Suggests that “everybody is doing it” so the audience should too. This plays on our desire to be a part of the group but it is not logical. Who’s doing it? These guys. AKA everybody. And… So should you!

43 Bandwagon The argument that everyone else is doing something or acting a certain way, so the audience should also. Used in often consumer ads

44 Bandwagon Appeals to desire to be apart of a group
The general idea is that since everyone is doing it, the audience should too

45 Bandwagon Suggests “everybody is doing it” so the reader should too

46 Bandwagon

47 Bandwagon This add suggests that everybody is doing it, so you should too. These happy girls all shop at Old Navy. Don’t you want to shop at Old Navy and be happy too?

48 Bandwagon

49 Kidding, kidding. Card stacking can be found in
This propaganda technique arises when certain evidence, generally numerical or statistical, is brought to our attention, while other evidence, equally or even more pertinent, is suppressed or minimized. Find the card stacking? Kidding, kidding. Card stacking can be found in One sided statistics Biased testimonials

50 Card Stacking Makes many arguments in quick succession against the opposition Serves to overwhelm the audience Uses blatant bias Using many statistics, testimonials, and facts about the opposition is often done very effectively

51 Cardstacking

52 Card Stacking Presents lots of evidence while ignoring other data that may be more pertinent Usually uses numbers and statistics

53 Other Persuasive Techniques

54 Either/Or Fallacy: Either you join a carpool, or you are a nazi

55 This German ad lists several reasons supporting eugenics, ignoring obvious flaws in the practice and questions about it

56 Sex appeal Subtle suggestions that a product will improve one’s gender image. If you smoke Camel, maybe you will look sexy and beautiful too.

57 Cuteness factor The puppies dress up this product, attracting the audience to the ad and to the product.

58 Repetition The continued repetition of “Got Milk” programs into the audiences head the idea of purchasing milk.

59 Snob Appeal This high class product is exclusive. If you purchase it, you will feel and look “high class” as well.

60 Something For Nothing This propaganda technique often offers special bargains and discounts that are too good to be true. You have the chance to pick from over 500 cars that don’t cost very much money!

61 Science and Statistics Ad
Uses numbers and scientific jargon to support product. This ad is promoted through scientific data, and effectiveness at lowering cholesterol.

62 Comparison This uses competitors image to put down or to persuade that the other product is better.

63 Fears and Insecurities
Appealing to the audience’s fears of what could possibly happen Often causes the audience to act irrationally

64 War Examples A series of American propaganda posters during World War II appealed to servicemen's patriotism to protect themselves from venereal disease. The text at the bottom of the poster reads, "You can't beat the Axis if you get VD". U.S. Propaganda from WWII, urging citizens to increase production. The heads that appear are those of Adolf Hitler and Hideki Tojo

65 World War I Woodrow Wilson sought Lippman and Bernays to help change the people’s opinion in favor of war ( To join Britain’s side)

66 The Propaganda Devices in Action
Uncle Sam: <-Transfer Direct Appeal->

67 Calls Tom Berryhill a weak candidate Only reason is because of his health- what about the politics?

68 Anti-Nazi War Poster: FEAR and INSECURITIES

69 Another Anti-Nazi poster:
Ad Hominem: Hitler is an absurd character Humour->

70 Transfer: President Bush is associated with the patriotic images of the flag and of soldiers.

71 Glittering Generalities: Bush will do anything to win
Fear and Insecurities Name Calling: President is a Vampire

72 Examples of Propaganda
Propaganda Remix Project Examples of Propaganda

73 Examples of Propaganda

74 Examples of Propaganda
Adbusters Examples of Propaganda

75 Propaganda Quiz Following this slide are seven examples of propaganda. Pick which example demonstrates a term shown in this presentation. Each of the seven terms will be used once Following each picture is an answer and explanation of the term demonstrated

76 Propaganda Quiz

77 Answer Cardstacking: This advertisement only presents the “fun” part of smoking rather than the whole case. It ignores the side effects smoking has on your health.

78 Propaganda Quiz

79 Answer Testimonial: Michelle Kwan talks about the merits of a good soap.

80 Propaganda Quiz

81 Answer Bandwagon: This advertisement invites you to join the drove of people who are going to see this movie.

82 Propaganda Quiz

83 Answer: Name Calling: This political cartoon calls Newt Gingrich a “crybaby”.

84                                              Propaganda Quiz

85 Answer Plain Folks: This is supposed to depict the familiar event of praying with your family around the dinner table.

86 Propaganda Quiz UNCLE SAM AS A PEACEMAKER- 1896
"I've just settled my quarrels at home, and you fellers will find I'm ready to attend to you, if you don't keep quiet."

87 Answer Transfer: Uncle Sam favorably represents the will of the United States.

88 Propaganda Quiz

89 Answer Glittering Generalities: This want ad is all inclusive and non-specific. It makes a general call for “people to make a difference”; no required qualifications are given in the ad.







96 Examples of Propaganda Posters

97 Websites of Interest Center for Media and Democracy: WWII propaganda leaflets: War, Propaganda and the Media: US Central Command (CENTCOM) archive of propaganda leaflets dropped in Iraq: centcom Collection of 400 WWI & WWII posters: Dr.Seuss Goes to War:


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