Presentation on theme: "Propaganda Techniques"— Presentation transcript:
1 Propaganda Techniques Made with the assistance of the AP studentsfrom
2 Propaganda QuotesA propagandist is a specialist in selling attitudes and opinions. Author: Hans SpeierPropaganda must not serve the truth, especially insofar as it might bring out something favorable for the opponent. Author: Goebbels
3 What is propaganda?The spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person.Most associate the term with the dissemination of ideas and beliefs, either disguised or not.Widely used in the advertising industryCan be used to promote consumerism or political viewsCan use emotional, ethical, and/or logical appeal.
4 What are persuasive techniques? devices of persuasion used for the purpose of changing one’s mind, making one take action, or both; usually accomplished by a combination of emotional appeals and logical reasoning
5 What is the connection?Propaganda is an implementation of persuasive techniques in order to spread ideas, information, for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person. You can’t have propaganda without persuasive techniques.
6 EtymologyThe term originates with the Sacred Congregation for the spreading of the Faith (sacra congregatio christiano nomini propagando or Congregatio de Propaganda Fide), which was founded by Pope Gregory XV in 1622, shortly after the start of the Thirty Years' War. This department of the pontifical administration charged with the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in mission territory.The Latin stem propagationem- (from pro- "forth" + *pag-, root of pangere "to fasten"), conveys a sense of "that which ought to be spread" and does not refer to misleading information. The modern sense dates from World War I, when the term evolved to be mainly associated with politics.
7 Early Propaganda The stereotypical type of propaganda The type that is likely the earliest usedBooksRadio ReportsLeafletsSpeeches
8 Propaganda in the 21st Century AdvertisementsCommercialsWebsitesBlogsPostersArticlesLeafletsMoviesArt
9 Types of Propaganda Techniques: The BIG 7 Name callingGlittering GeneralitiesTransferTestimonialPlain FolksCard StackingBand Wagon
10 Other Persuasive Techniques HumorLoaded languageFear and insecuritiesSex appealSomething for nothingScience & statisticsComparisons & negativesSnob appealRepetitionRhetorical QuestionDirect CommandCuteness factor
11 Can you spot the name calling? Appeal to the audience’s hate and fear by giving bad names to opponents. Often dehumanizes and belittles the opponent to make it easier for the audience to hate them.Can you spot the name calling?
12 Name Calling Insults the opposition May be a veiled or obvious insult Often used in politics to insult the other partyThere usually is no evidence to support the claims
13 Name CallingCauses audience to associate the opponent with negative ideasNo longer does the audience see any good in the opponent
16 Glittering Generalities Makes broad, unsupported statements often using “all”, “every”, “always”, or “never” to make your case to the audience.StrengthPatriotismWhich of these words could be used with a glittering generality?DemocracyFreedomSure, they are all examples of words that invoke emotion and need not be supported in most cases.
17 Glittering Generalities Essentially the opposite of Name CallingAttaches positive words and phrases to a subjectDoesn’t specify reasons or give explanations-- the claims the propaganda makes are often too good to be true
18 Glittering Generalities This image depicts Saddam Hussein as a strong leader intimes of crisis—but does it really show that? Does the factthat he is talking on the telephone signify that he is in control?
19 Glittering Generalities Uses charged words that lead to the reader believing what is saidAlso makes generalized statementsWords such as “all”, “every”, “none”
20 Glittering Generalities Uses very vague words that the audience immediately relates to and acceptsOften uses words such as all or always without providing much support
21 Transfer See any transfer? This propaganda technique depends upon the principle of favorable association, even though there may be little or no logical connection.In one variety the subject may be identified with some idea or entity (God or country) that is inherently pleasing or attractive. Another variety uses the prestige or reputation of a respected person or institution to support an idea.See any transfer?The American flag in the background associates Clinton with the ideas of democracy, patriotism, and nationalism.
22 TransferGives the power, reputation, or emotions associated with something to the propagandaExamples: Uncle Sam, the American flag, the Founding Fathers
23 TransferThis WWII ad calls for the support of the war, and is connected with the image of Winston Churchill.Winston Churchill is an honorable man and he needs your help with the war. Won’t you support him?
24 TransferMakes associations to symbols or ideas such as the nation or religious symbolsA connection between the position and the symbol/idea is often lacking
26 This transfers the importance and power of Mao Zedong to the importance and power of education
27 Testimonials Where’s the testimonial? Uses comments and endorsement from supporters to make your position more attractive to the audience. This is “pseudo-inductive reasoning.”Where’s the testimonial?Nicely done. Remember that some testimonials may not be reliable.
28 Testimonial Uses a customer’s reaction to persuade the audience Lauds the product, sometimes compares to a competitorCreates pseudo-inductive reasoningOften can be turned into a syllogistic argument"We loved the idea of the Million Dollar Homepage and thought we had nothing to lose by spending a few hundred dollars, placing the Peerclix green smilie icon on the homepage. Wow! After just TWO DAYS, we've seen visitors to our PeerclixPSP site nearly double, all for a $400 dollar investment. We'll definitely be buying more pixels for our PeerclixiPod 'Nano' site launching at the end of the month." Simon MacTaggart
29 TestimonialsUses the words of others who are in support of the idea or productProblem arises when the person has no expertiseOften employs testimonials from famous people
38 This ad forMacintosh computers uses the plain folks technique. The Mac looks much more average and nice than the PC.
39 Plain FolksThis appeals to the common, average reader by suggesting that the product is honest and authentic.This happy average family is enjoying the protection of Allstate insurance. Don’t you want your family to benefit from all state?
41 Plain Folks Appeals to the common people The idea or product is essentially for the peopleMakes the idea or product look honest and trustworthy
42 These guys. AKA everybody. And… BandwagonSuggests that “everybody is doing it” so the audience should too. This plays on our desire to be a part of the group but it is not logical.Who’s doing it?These guys. AKA everybody. And…So should you!
43 BandwagonThe argument that everyone else is doing something or acting a certain way, so the audience should also.Used in often consumer ads
44 Bandwagon Appeals to desire to be apart of a group The general idea is that since everyone is doing it, the audience should too
45 BandwagonSuggests “everybody is doing it” so the reader should too
49 Kidding, kidding. Card stacking can be found in This propaganda technique arises when certain evidence, generally numerical or statistical, is brought to our attention, while other evidence, equally or even more pertinent, is suppressed or minimized.Find the card stacking?Kidding, kidding. Card stacking can be found inOne sided statisticsBiased testimonials
50 Card StackingMakes many arguments in quick succession against the oppositionServes to overwhelm the audienceUses blatant biasUsing many statistics, testimonials, and facts about the opposition is often done very effectively
54 Either/Or Fallacy: Either you join a carpool, or you are a nazi
55 This German ad lists several reasons supporting eugenics, ignoring obvious flaws in the practice and questions about it
56 Sex appealSubtle suggestions that a product will improve one’s gender image.If you smoke Camel, maybe you will look sexy and beautiful too.
57 Cuteness factorThe puppies dress up this product, attracting the audience to the ad and to the product.
58 RepetitionThe continued repetition of “Got Milk” programs into the audiences head the idea of purchasing milk.
59 Snob AppealThis high class product is exclusive. If you purchase it, you will feel and look “high class” as well.
60 Something For NothingThis propaganda technique often offers special bargains and discounts that are too good to be true.You have the chance to pick from over 500 cars that don’t cost very much money!
61 Science and Statistics Ad Uses numbers and scientific jargon to support product.This ad is promoted through scientific data, and effectiveness at lowering cholesterol.
62 ComparisonThis uses competitors image to put down or to persuade that the other product is better.
63 Fears and Insecurities Appealing to the audience’s fears of what could possibly happenOften causes the audience to act irrationally
64 War ExamplesA series of American propaganda posters during World War II appealed to servicemen's patriotism to protect themselves from venereal disease. The text at the bottom of the poster reads, "You can't beat the Axis if you get VD".U.S. Propaganda from WWII, urging citizens to increase production. The heads that appear are those of Adolf Hitler and Hideki Tojo
65 World War IWoodrow Wilson sought Lippman and Bernays to help change the people’s opinion in favor of war ( To join Britain’s side)
66 The Propaganda Devices in Action Uncle Sam:<-TransferDirect Appeal->
67 Calls Tom Berryhill a weak candidate Only reason is because of his health- what about the politics?
74 Examples of Propaganda AdbustersExamples of Propaganda
75 Propaganda QuizFollowing this slide are seven examples of propaganda. Pick which example demonstrates a term shown in this presentation.Each of the seven terms will be used onceFollowing each picture is an answer and explanation of the term demonstrated
97 Websites of Interest Center for Media and Democracy: prwatch.org spinwatch.orgWWII propaganda leaflets:War, Propaganda and the Media:propagandacritic.comadbusters.orgUS Central Command (CENTCOM) archive of propaganda leaflets dropped in Iraq: centcomCollection of 400 WWI & WWII posters:Dr.Seuss Goes to War: