Expository Writing Includes Facts, Statistics, Illustrations, Quotes, Examples, Personal Experiences in order to give the reader information.
“So,” you ask, “what does Persuasive Writing Include?”
Good Question. Persuasive writing, because its purpose is to convince someone to think what you want them to think or do what you want them to do, requires support for your side.
So what form does that support come in? It comes in the form of Facts, Statistics, Illustrations, Quotes, Examples, and Personal Experiences. Sound Familiar? Yes, grasshopper, the Information is the Same as you would use for an expository paper; it is just Used Differently.
Good Persuasive Writing is made up of Appeals to Emotion and Appeals to Logic.
Appeals to Emotion target the reader’s Feelings and Psychological Needs, such as the need to feel young and attractive, the need to be loved, the need to fit in.
Appeals to Logic target the reader’s Ability to Reason. Appeals to logic are more difficult to express well and take more time to develop.
Like any other type of writing, good Persuasive Writing takes its Audience into account.
The Audience you are writing for determines which facts, statistics, illustrations, quotes, examples, and personal stories you include.
For example, if you are trying to convince your parents to let you attend a concert, you will include certain information about time, place, chaperones, companions, and transportation which would convince them of the appropriateness and safety of the event.
On the other hand, if you are trying to convince your best buddies to go to the same concert with you would include information about time, place, chaperones (or lack thereof), companions, and transportation which would convince them of the fun-factor of the event.
Appeals to Emotion Target a Person’s Feelings and Are Developed Quickly – Within Seconds – Therefore Most Advertising is Based on Emotional Appeals.
Emotional Appeals are made through the use of colors, pictures, and descriptive words with strong positive or negative connotations.
Advertising Techniques 1 Cardstacking – using evidence that will only prove one side of the story Name Calling – Labeling someone or something with a generality instead of looking at the individual. Glittering Generalities – Using words or phrases that sound particularly patriotic or impressive with nothing to support them.
Advertising Techniques 2 Transfer – Showing someone famous or very attractive using a product so your positive feelings about that person will transfer to the product. Guilt by Association – the opposite of transfer: using someone very unattractive in an ad against something, so you will associate the negative feelings about the person to the product.
Advertising Techniques 3 Testimonial – Very similar to transfer, but the famous person lends his/her name and may actually speak in the ad saying that they use the product and how great it is. The purpose is the same as transfer. Plain folks – shows ordinary people using ordinary products “just like you.” Usually used to sell the things everyone needs and uses on a daily basis.
Advertising Techniques 4 Snob Appeal – the opposite of plain folks appeal; it features the rich and beautiful buying things only they can afford. Bandwagon – the “everybody’s doing it” approach. It suggests that something is good or right because it has widespread support, and that if you use it, you will be accepted as one of the “in” group.
Advertising Assignment Divide into groups, pick or invent a product, choose an advertising technique, and write and perform a commercial for that product. The performance may be live or videoed, and everyone in the group must participate. Also you must choose a color scheme, create a mock-up of your product, and include some sort of visual in your ad.
Appeals to Reason (Logic) Persuasion through logical reasoning is called argumentation, and includes both deductive and inductive reasoning.
Deductive Reasoning Begins with a Generalization, adds a related statement, and ends with a specific conclusion (like an upside down pyramid). This 3-step process is called a Syllogism. It is very similar to an If…then statement in Geometry.
Example of a Syllogism All high school seniors must take 4 years of English (generalization). Hannah is a high school senior (related statement). Therefore, Hannah must take 4 years of English (specific conclusion).
For a Deductive Syllogism to work, it must meet the rules of logic: it must be both truthful and valid.
To be both truthful and valid the following 3 requirements must be met: 1.The first two statements must both be true. 2.The first statement must contain a universal (all or nothing) group (all seniors). 3.The second statement must establish an individual as a member of the universal group (Hannah is a senior). 4.Therefore, whatever applies to the entire universal group must also apply to each individual within that group.
Inductive Reasoning takes many individual pieces of specific evidence and from them, draws a general conclusion (like a normal pyramid). This is the most common type of reasoning that we do on a daily basis. It is basically same as the scientific method, and like a hypothesis, you can never be 100% sure you are right.
False Reasoning (aka Logical Fallacies) Have you ever been arguing with someone and you knew there was something about their argument that wasn’t quite logical, but you couldn’t put your finger on exactly what it was? If so, you have encountered a logical fallacy. Next time you’ll be able to call that person on it.
Common Logical Fallacies 1 Begging the Question – Drawing a conclusion without providing proof, just assuming it is true. Ignoring the Question – When the conclusion does not address the main issue; it may address a peripheral issue, but does not address the primary point being discussed. Ad Hominem Argument – Latin phrase meaning “to the man.” This fallacy is when a personal attack is made on an individual in order to avoid addressing the real issue. It happens often in political campaigns and is often called “poisoning the well.”
Common Logical Fallacies 2 Oversimplification – When the arguer draws a simple conclusion about a complex problem. This often happens with cause – effect arguments. Rarely is there a simple cause or solution for a complex situation. Either-Or Argument – Where a person draws extreme conclusions or offers extreme solutions and ignores the possibility of any other variations in between. For example, “Marry me tomorrow or never see me again” is an example of either-or reasoning.
Common Logical Fallacies 3 False Comparison (aka false analogy) – trying to compare two things to support your point that upon closer examination really cannot be compared. (See packet for example)