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Preparing for Aging, Death, and Dying

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Presentation on theme: "Preparing for Aging, Death, and Dying"— Presentation transcript:

1 Preparing for Aging, Death, and Dying

2 Preparing for Aging, Death, and Dying
Aging refers to the patterns of life changes that occur in members of all species as they grow older. Some believe aging begins at the moment of conception, others believe that it does not begin until we reach our forties. The study of individual and collective aging processes is called gerontology. Explores the reasons for aging and the ways in which people cope with to the process. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Characteristics of People Who Age Successfully
They stay active, through leisure activities and regular exercise. They maintain a normal weight range. They eat a healthy diet containing low levels of saturated fats, with plenty of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. They participate in meaningful activities, like volunteering and other social activities. They don't smoke, and consume alcohol only in moderation. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 Older Adults: A Growing Population
Its not how many years someone has lived, but how much life the person has packed into those years. Life expectancy for a child born in 2011 is 78.4 years, over 30 years longer than for a child born in 1900. Today, there are 39.6 million people aged 65 or older, making up 12% of the population. By 2030,the older population is expected to be twice as large as in 2008, growing to 72.1 million and representing 19.3% of the population. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 Theories of Aging Wear-and-tear theory Cellular theory
Like everything else in the world, the human body wears out. Cellular theory At birth we only have a certain number of usable cells, programmed to reproduce a limited number of times. Genetic mutation theory The number of body cells exhibiting unusual or different characteristics increases with age. Autoimmune theory Attributes aging to the decline of the body's immunological system. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 Physical and Mental Changes of Aging
Typical physical changes Skin Bones and joints Head and face Urinary tract Heart and lungs Senses Sexual function (men and women) © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 Mental Function and Memory
Dementias and Alzheimer's Disease Dementias are progressive impairments that interfere with memory and normal intellectual functioning. Alzheimer's disease is a chronic condition involving changes in nerve fibers of the brain that results in mental deterioration. The key to maintaining memory is keeping your mind active. People who engage in reading, solving mental puzzles, and learning to play musical instruments have a better chance of keeping their memory sharp. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 Alcohol and Drug Use and Abuse
A person who is prone to alcoholism during his or her younger years is more likely to continue that pattern during later years. Alcohol abuse is five times more common among older men than among older women. Older people rarely use illicit drugs, but some mistakenly overuse or misuse prescriptions. Polypharmacy—use of multiple medications © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 Strategies for Healthy Aging
Develop and Maintain Healthy Relationships Social bonds and support lend vigor and energy to life. Enrich the Spiritual Side of Life Developing bonds with nature, the environment, a higher being, and yourself is important. Improve Fitness the less muscle you have, the less energy you will burn even while resting. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 Strategies for Healthy Aging, (cont.)
Eat for Health Certain nutrients are essential to healthy aging. Calcium – to prevent bone loss Vitamin D – for calcium absorption Protein – for muscle mass Healthy diet should help meet all other nutrient needs. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 Dying and Death Death is the final cessation of vital functions.
The Process of Dying The process of the decline in body functions that results in the death of an organism It is complex and includes physical, intellectual, social, spiritual, and emotional dimensions. Coping Emotionally with Death Stages of dying Denial- “Not me, there must be a mistake” Anger- “why me?” Bargaining- “If I’m allowed to live, I promise….” Depression- “It’s really going to happen to me, and I cant do anything about it” Acceptance- “I’m ready” © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 Social Death Social death can occur when a person is not treated as an active member of society. People who are treated differently when they are dying, leading them to feel more isolated and unable to talk about their feelings: As if he or she were already dead. Loss of being valued or appreciated by others Denying a person normal social interaction © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 Coping with Loss Coping with the loss of a loved one is extremely difficult, for the dying person, as well as close family and friends, frequently suffers emotionally and physically from the loss of critical relationships and roles. Bereavement: the loss or deprivation experienced by a survivor when a loved one dies Grief: an individual's reaction to significant loss, including one's own impending death, the death of a loved one, Mourning: the culturally prescribed behavior patterns for the expression of grief © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 Worden's Model of Grieving Tasks
Accept the reality of the loss. Work through the pain of grief. Adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing. Emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 The Right to Die Advance directives are documents that stipulate an individual's wishes about medical care; used to make treatment decisions when and if the individual becomes unable to voice his or her preferences. Living wills are a type of advance directive. A living will includes specific wishes about dying. Be specific. Get an agent. Discuss your wishes. Deliver the directive. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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