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By: Katie Green, Jessica Nissen, and Mario Noble.

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1 By: Katie Green, Jessica Nissen, and Mario Noble

2 Can be anything Death -Suicide -Child Divorce Separation WHAT IS LOSS?

3 Elisabeth Kübler-Ross 1. Denial and Isolation 2. Anger 3. Bargaining 4. Depression 5. Acceptance 5 STAGES OF DEATH AND DYING

4 Stages are just generalizations You do not have to go through each stage in order to heal- You may not go through any stages There’s not a typical response to loss, as there is no typical loss 5 STAGES CONT’D

5 Charles Darwin- separation reactions resulting from the loss of a loved one were innate Sigmund Freud- defined mourning as a period of gradual withdrawal of libido from the now-missed loved object John Bowlby- proposed 4 phases of mourning 1) numbing, 2) yearning and searching for the lost figure, 3) disorganization and despair, and 4) reorganization OTHER THEORIES

6 Bereavement- A state involving loss Grief- The feelings of sorrow, anger, guilt, and confusion that arise when one experiences a loss Mourning- The overt expression of grief and the usual response to bereavement DEFINITIONS

7 J. William Worden Task I: Accepting the Reality of the Loss Task II: Experiencing the Pain of Grief Task III: Adjusting to an Environment from Which the Deceased is Missing Task IV: Withdrawing Emotional Energy from the Deceased and Reinventing It in Another Relationship or Cause TASKS OF MOURNING

8 Feelings: sadness, anger, guilt, anxiety, loneliness, fatigue, helplessness, shock, yearning and pining, relief, from suffering, and numbness Physical Sensations: hollowness in the stomach, tightness in the chest and throat, sense of depersonalization, breathlessness, weakness in the muscles Cognitions: disbelief, confusion, preoccupation, sense of presence, hallucinations Behaviors: sleep and appetite disturbances, absent-minded behaviors, social withdrawal, dreams of the deceased, restless overactivity, sighing or crying, fear of losing memories, treasuring objects MANIFESTATIONS OF NORMAL GRIEF

9 Who the person was in relation to the survivor Nature of the attachment Mode of death Prior grief experiences and mental health Religious beliefs DETERMINANTS OF GRIEF

10 Watch for symptoms that may require a physician Emotions prevent client from sleeping, working, eating or taking care of themselves, medication may be necessary Assist mourning process and help client work through the normal expression of grief INTERVENTION

11 1. Help survivors actualize the loss. Talk about the loss 2. Help them identify and express feelings 3. Help survivors in living without the deceased 4. Facilitate emotional withdrawal from the deceased 5. Provide time to grieve 6. Educate clients about customary grieving reactions of other individuals to normalize the experience 7. Allow for individual differences 8. Provide for continuing support COUNSELING PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES

12 “Losing a child has a different meaning than losing a parent. When you lose a parent, you lose your past, but when you lose a child, you lose your future.” – Nancy Ludt Divorce rate of bereaved parents is 92% if the couple does not receive some form of help Support groups can be very helpful LOSING A CHILD

13 1.It is a place of safety where it’s all right to say anything 2.Fulfills the need to be with understanding people; even if members don’t attend, they know it’s available 3.It is the child’s space 4.It helps understand the death emotionally versus intellectually 5.Allows a hope for socialization in the future 6.Has no time frame 7.Allows parents to laugh or cry and not hurt anyone’s feelings 8.Allows parents to express their thoughts with no need to explain them 9.Can save a parent’s life 10.A place where I know that you know that I know that you know 10 REASONS WHY GRIEVING PARENTS PREFER A SUPPORT GROUP

14 About 50% of marriages end in divorce How well the person copes with a break up will depend on material, personal, and social resources Crisis workers still need to help each partner complete the tasks of mourning Help the client grieve DIVORCE AND SEPARATION

15 Age at marriage who divorce in America >20- women 27.6% men 11.7% 20-24- women 36.6% men 38.8% 25-29- women 16.4% men 22.3% 30-34- women 8.5% men 11.6% 35-39- women 5.1% men 6.5% Marriage stats for divorce First Marriage- 45%-50% Second Marriage- 60%-67% Third Marriage- 70%-73% DIVORCE STATS

16 Massachusetts (2.4 per 1,000 pop) Nevada (9.1 per 1,000 pop) 10% US population DIVORCE STATS CONT.

17 About 26% of children under the age of 18 live with a divorced parent, separated parent, or stepparent Though divorce is difficult for children, most adjust fairly well to the situation A small minority of children will need mental health treatment though 50% of all North American children witness divorce 1 out 10 children of divorce experience 3 or more parental marriage breakups 50% of all children born to married parents will experience divorce of their parents before they are 18 CHILDREN AND DIVORCE

18 Blended family- joining of two previously separated families Many of the conflicts in blended families arise because of the developmental stages of the children, the maturity level of each adult involved and the stage of grieving over the divorce each adult is working through Loyalty issues are common for children in cases where a stepparent becomes part of their home life. 1 out of 3 Americans is now a stepparent, stepchild, or some other member of a blended family More than half of Americans today, are now or will eventually be one or more step situations during their lives By 2010 blended families are projected to be the predominant family form in the US BLENDED FAMILIES

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