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Mrs. DeLillo Living Environment

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Presentation on theme: "Mrs. DeLillo Living Environment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mrs. DeLillo Living Environment
Human Reproduction Mrs. DeLillo Living Environment

2 3/17 Aim: How are males adapted for reproduction?
Do now: How many sperm are produced during meiosis? How do they compare to the parent cell in terms of chromosome # and appearance? HW: Diagram handout Test signed

3 Reproduction The formation of new individuals. Not necessary for the survival of the individual Necessary for the survival of the species.

4 3/10 How is the male adapted to carry out reproduction?
Do now: How many sperm cells are produced during spermatogenesis? How do they compare in terms of look and # of chromosomes to the parent cell? HW: Handout

5 Gametes: specialized sex cells
Fusion of sperm and egg forms a zygote. Zygote = single cell from which all cells of the human body develop.

6 Development 1st six weeks=male and female embryos are identical in appearance. During 7th week the primary reproductive organs begin to develop Testes = male produce testosterone Ovaries = female produce estrogen and progesterone



9 Testosterone Responsible for the production of sperm. Responsible for producing male secondary sex Characteristics

10 What characteristic is this cartoon implying that testosterone is responsible for?


12 Ovaries Estrogen is responsible for the developing eggs. Progesterone is responsible for the production of secondary sex characteristics Progesterone also readies the uterus for an embryo


14 Ovary

15 Ages 9-15 (about a year earlier in females)
Puberty Period of rapid growth and sexual maturation during which the reproductive system becomes fully functional. Ages 9-15 (about a year earlier in females)

16 Male Reproductive System
Main Structures Testes, epididymis, vas deferens, urethra and penis All work together to produce and deliver sperm.

17 Testes Located in the scrotum Outside the body because the cooler temperature is better for sperm production. Within the testes are the seminiferous tubules= location of sperm production



20 Sperm Three parts Head with a nucleus Mid piece with mitochondria Tail which moves the sperm forward Allows it to swim through the female reproductive tract.

21 Sperm


23 Sperm Pathway Testes To the epididymis to mature and be stored Some sperm swim into the vas deferens Into the urethra (tube which leads to the outside of the body through the penis)

24 Sperm cont. Swim in seminal fluid Produced by the glands such as prostate that line the reproductive tract. Sperm + seminal fluid = semen Between 50 and 130 million sperm present in 1 mL of semen


26 Sperm Release Autonomic Nervous system preps the male organs Ejaculation: sperm are ejected from the penis due to the contraction of smooth muscles lining the reproductive tract. Not completely voluntary

27 2/14 How is the female adapted to carry out reproduction?
Do now: How many functional eggs are produced in oogenesis? How do they compare to the parent cell in terms of look and # of chromosomes? HW: Study for quiz tomorrow on male and female reproduction

28 Female Reproductive System
Widening of the hips, development of breasts play a role in this system. Main Structures Ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina



31 Female Reproductive System
Prepares the body for nourishing an embryo Produces eggs

32 Ovaries 2 present in the female Produce 1 mature ovum/egg between them per month.

33 Egg Development Each ovary contains 400,000 immature eggs Primary Follicle= clusters of cells that surround an egg Help the egg mature for release into the reproductive tract where it will become fertilized.

34 A female will not produce any new eggs during her lifetime
Egg Development A female will not produce any new eggs during her lifetime Only 400 eggs will be released in her lifetime.

35 Where do the eggs develop?
Egg is released in a process known as ovulation Follicle breaks open and the egg goes into the fallopian tube aka: oviduct The egg moves along the fallopian tube due to cilia It is here where it will become fertilized.


37 After a few days, the egg is dropped into the uterus.
If it becomes fertilized (by sperm) then the lining is known as the cervix Beyond the cervix is the vagina which leads to the outside of the body

38 2/16 Aim: How can we describe the stages of the menstrual cycle?
Do now: Where does fertilization usually occur? HW: Finish handout and regents questions on menstrual cycle

39 Menstrual Cycle Endocrine and Reproductive Systems interact in a series of periodic events known as the Menstrual Cycle. Cycle takes an average of about 28 days Regulated by hormones controlled by negative feedback.

40 Menstrual Cycle Egg develops and is released from the ovary If fertilized after ovulation it is implanted in the uterus and embryonic development begins. If not it is shed along with the uterus lining (period)

41 4 Cycles Follicular Phase Estrogen level is low
Hypothalamus tells the Pituitary to release FSH and LH These hormones travel to the ovaries and cause the follicle to mature Cells around the egg produce estrogen because estrogen is what prepares the uterus Thickens the lining to receive the egg 10 days long

42 4 Cycles Ovulation Shortest phase in the cycle Lasts 3-4 days long
Occurs midway through Pituitary produces a sudden rush of FSH and LH The follicle ruptures and the mature egg is released into the fallopian tube.

43 4 Cycles Luteal Phase aka Corpus Luteum Stage
Begins after the egg is released Follicle turns yellow due to the rupturing of the cells Now known as the corpus luteum (yellow body) Estrogen is released and progesterone begins to be released as well.

44 4 Cycles Luteal Phase cont.
The increased estrogen levels occur during the 1st 14 days which promotes cell growth and tissue development. Blood supply increases which helps the tissues mature The lining is fully prepared to accept a fertilized egg. During the first 2 days of this phase the fertilization rate is the highest. If fertilized  egg will begin to divide.

45 What happens if fertilization doesn’t occur?
Menstruation Within 2-3 days of ovulation, the egg will pass through the uterus without implantation Corpus leuteum will disintegrate Hormone levels in the blood decrease.

46 When the level of estrogen drop below a certain point, the lining of the uterus begins to detach from the uterine wall. This tissue, along with blood and the unfertilized egg are discharged through the vagina. This is known as Menstruation Lasts 3-7 days Day 1-5 of the cycle



49 A few days later after “Period” ends, the hormone levels are low enough to stimulate the release of FSH and LH The cycle begins all over again.

50 3/17 Period 2 & 4 Aim: How can we review the menstrual cycle?
Do now: Take out HW, work on questions HW: School island due Friday

51 3/17 Period 8 Aim: How can we review the menstrual cycle?
Do now: Take out HW (purple questions) and labeling handout (Blue) HW: Menstrual Cycle Questions (Regents)

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