Presentation on theme: "Reproduction Discuss at your table:"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reproduction Discuss at your table: Are you like your parents? What part of you is like your mother? What part is like your father?How come we are not identical copies?
2 Objectives:1. Identify the major structures of the male and female reproductive system. 2. Describe the function of each structure of the male and female reproductive system.
3 Reproductive SystemThe Reproductive System, unlike other systems we have studied, IS NOT ESSENTIAL to the survival of an INDIVIDUAL.What the Reproductive System is important to is the Survival of the SPECIES. Reproduction is absolutely essential to the continuation of the SPECIES…SOME OF US MUST REPRODUCE!
4 Genetic InformationEVERY cell in the human body contains a nucleus which has the pattern for your body on 23 pairs of chromosomes.Except: Blood cells and sex cellsChromosomes are the pattern for your body carrying inherited information like eye color.
5 Pair Up your cards and put them in order: A, A2, 23, 35, 56, 67, 7Etc.
6 Card Traits black red A hair color dark light 2 height tall short eye color dark lighthair texture curly straightK sex boy girlChromosomes contain genes which have specific information (traits) on them
7 The Human Reproductive System The testes and ovaries produce and store special cells called sperm and egg cells. The egg cell contains information from the motherThe sperm cell contains information from the fatherEach contains only one of each pair of chromosomes. How many is that?
8 FertilizationThe egg cell and sperm cell join together in a process called FERTILIZATION. From a single Fertilized Egg cell, or ZYGOTE, come all the cells in a human body.
9 Male reproductive system Male reproductive system is specialized to produce sperm
10 A. The TESTES, which are Reproductive Organs of a MALE, begin to produce the hormone testosterone, making the male reproductive organs develop.C. Neither Testes or Ovaries are capable of producing working sperm or eggs until PUBERTY.
12 THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1. At puberty, males begin to produce sperm in the testes.2. The TESTES develop within the Abdominal Cavity, just before birth the Testes descend through a canal into an EXTERNAL SAC called the SCROTUM.
13 Male Reproductive System 4. The Testes are outside the body, in the scrotum, where the temperature is about 3 degrees Cooler than the body internal temperature5. Sperm development in the Testes Requires the Lower Temperature.
14 Male Reproductive System 8. Cells that respond to Testosterone are found all over the body.9. Testosterone produces a number of SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS that appear in Males at Puberty – Voice Deepens, Beard Grows, and Body Hair.
16 Sperm Development1. Sperm come from Special Cells within the Testes that have divided with half of the genetic information of a regular cell.2. A Mature Sperm consists of THREE Regions: A. HEAD - which contains the Nucleus (The 23 Chromosomes) and enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the protective layers that surround and Egg Cell. B. MID PIECE - packed with energy releasing Mitochondria (Energy Source). The Mitochondria supply the energy that is required for sperm to reach an Egg. C. TAIL – Consists of a Single, Powerful FLAGELLUM that propels the Sperm.
17 Male Reproductive System 4. Sperm goes through the Vas Deferens5. Each Vas Deferens merges with the Urethra. In a Male, both Urine and Sperm exit the body through the Urethra.6. In the Urethra, Sperm Mix with Fluids that are secreted by three glands to make SEMINAL FLUID -which Protects and Nourishes the Sperm.
18 Male Reproductive System SEMEN: THE COMBINATION OF SPERM AND SEMINAL FLUIDBETWEEN 100 AND 200 MILLION SPERM ARE PRESENT IN 1 milliliter OF SEMEN OR ABOUT 5 MILLION SPERM PER DROP!The Penis is the Male Reproductive Organ that makes it possible for Sperm to be delivered to the body of the Female.
19 Male Reproductive System million Sperm are released in the Reproductive Tract of a Female during a single Ejaculation; the chances of a Single Sperm Fertilizing an Egg if one is available, are GOODMost sperm are Killed by the Acidic Environment of the Female Reproductive Track. Only a few Sperm reach the site of Fertilization.
20 Female Reproductive System The main function of the female reproductive system is to produce EggsEACH TIME AN EGG IS RELEASED, THE BODY MUST BE PREPARED TO NOURISH A DEVELOPING EMBRYO.
21 Female Reproductive System Puberty in females starts with changes in hormones.Estrogen causes the reproductive system to complete its development, and also produce SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS - Enlargement of Breast and Reproductive Organs, Widening of the Hips, and growth of Body Hair.
22 Female Reproductive System Each Ovary contains about 400,000 PRIMARY FOLLICLES, which are clusters of cells surrounding a single ovum (egg).2. During her lifetime fewer than 500 Ova (Eggs) will actually be released, averaging one egg about every 28 days.When a Follicle has completely matured, the Ovum (Egg) is released. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED OVULATION
23 Female Reproductive System If TWO Eggs mature, Fraternal, or Non Identical Twins may result.Ovulation begins at Puberty and USUALLY continues until a female is in her late forties, when MENOPAUSE occurs.During Ovulation the Follicle ruptures, and the Ovum is swept from the Ovary into one of the TWO FALLOPIAN TUBES. The Fallopian Tubes provide a way for an egg to travel from the Ovary to the Uterus.
25 Female Reproductive System IT IS DURING ITS JOURNEY THROUGH THE FALLOPIAN TUBE THAT AN EGG CAN BE FERTILIZED. An Egg must be fertilized within 48 hours of its release - after that, the egg begins to break down. Unfertilized eggs dissolve in the Uterus.After a FEW DAYS, the Ovum passes from the Fallopian Tube into the UTERUS
26 Female Reproductive System Leading from the Uterus (CERVIX) to the outside of the body is a muscular tube called the VAGINA or Birth Canal.
27 Menstrual CycleTHE MENSTRUAL CYCLE IS THE SERIES OF CHANGES THAT OCCUR IN THE UTERUS EACH MONTH.The Menstrual Cycle has FOUR Stages: THE FOLLICULAR PHASE, OVULATION, THE LUTEAL PHASE AND MENSTRUATIONThese Stages are Regulated by the Hormones of the Endocrine System
28 Menstrual CycleDuring the 1st stage, the Egg Matures, and the Lining of the Uterus GROWS THICKER, many tiny Blood Vessels grow into the thickened lining, in preparation for receiving a Fertilized Egg.The development of an Egg in this stage of the Cycle takes about 14 DAYS
29 Menstrual CycleThe 2nd Stage, OVULATION, the shortest phase in the Cycle (3-4 DAYS), is the release of an egg from a ruptured follicle. Following Ovulation, an egg is swept into a fallopian tube, where it travels toward the uterus awaiting fertilization. The Egg has enough stored nutrients to survive about 48 hours.
30 Menstrual CycleThe 3rd Stage lasts about 14 Days. The Cells of the Ruptured Follicle grow larger and fill the cavity and begin to secrete large amounts of PROGESTERONE and ESTROGEN. The Increase levels cause the Pituitary Gland to stop Secreting LH and FSH.
31 Menstrual CycleHormones cause the lining of the Uterus to become even thickerThe Lining is prepared to receive the Embryo four or five days after the Egg is released from the Ovary.An Embryo that settles into the lining of the uterus, hormones continue to be released, which cause the Uterus to maintain its thickened lining.Most of the time, no embryo arrives, less hormone is produced.
32 Menstrual CycleThe Decrease in Levels of hormones causes the lining of the uterus to come loose from the inside of the uterusThe mixture of Blood and the Cells that made up the lining of the uterus is called MENSTRUAL FLUID.
33 Menstrual CycleThe passage of this Fluid through the Vagina and out of the body is called MENSTRUATION OR THE MENSTRUAL PERIOD THE LAST STAGE. IT USUALLY LASTS FROM THREE TO SEVEN DAYS. At the end of the Period, a NEW Cycle BeginsThe AVERAGE Menstrual Cycle is 28 DAYS LONG.
34 Menstrual PeriodAlmost ALL Women START their Menstrual Period 14 DAYS AFTER Ovulation occurs.The length of the First stage of the cycle, the period when the Follicle is growing, DIFFERS from women to women.