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Reproduction and Development in Humans

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Presentation on theme: "Reproduction and Development in Humans"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reproduction and Development in Humans
Chapter 25 Reproduction and Development in Humans SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

2 (I) Female Reproductive

3 Gametogenesis The production of gametes (sex cells)
Males = spermatogenesis in the testes Females = oogenesis in the ovaries SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

4 (A) Ovaries The female gonads
Located within the lower portion of the body cavity In the ovaries, each egg cell (ovum) is present in a tiny sac called a follicle About once a month, a follicle matures and bursts. The egg is then released and travels into the oviduct (Fallopian tubules) This is known as ovulation SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

5 4. Fertilization takes place within the Fallopian tubules (oviduct) forming a zygote
5. The zygote then travels down and into the uterus where it implants into the uterine lining and develops 6. When embryonic development of the baby is completed, the cervix dilates (opens) and the baby travels through the birth canal known as the vagina SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

6 b) progesterone- maintains pregnancy
7. The ovaries also produce sex hormones known as estrogen and progesterone a) estrogen- used for the development of secondary sex characteristics like mammary glands (breasts) b) progesterone- maintains pregnancy SACCONE IS THE COOLEST


8 (II) Menstrual Cycle Mature egg develops and is released
Begins at puberty and ends at menopause Hormones involved: FSH estrogen LH progesterone Stages involved in order: follicle stage  ovulation  corpus luteum  menstruation SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

9 1. Follicle Stage 10-14 days FSH is secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates maturation of egg in the follicle As the follicle develops, it releases estrogen which stimulates the uterine lining to thicken with blood SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

10 Ovulation Secretion of LH (lutenizing hormone) from the pituitary causes a mature egg to be released from the follicle and into the fallopian tubules (oviduct) SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

11 3. Corpus Luteum Stage 10-12 days
The burst follicle fills with cells forming the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone Progesterone stimulates further thickening of the uterine lining SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

12 4. Menstruation 3-5 days If the egg is not fertilized, progesterone secretion decreases and the lining of the uterus breaks down The lining of the uterus is sloughed off and discharged from the body through the vagina as a result (period). SACCONE IS THE COOLEST


14 (III) Fertilization and Implantation
Fertilization occurs in the fallopian tubules (oviduct) If the egg is not fertilized within 24 hours after ovulation, it will deteriorate After fertilization, the zygote undergoes cleavage and becomes an embryo SACCONE IS THE COOLEST


16 4. The embryo arrives in the uterus 5-10 days after fertilization
5. The embryo implants into the uterine wall and establishes pregnancy 6. Placenta- nourishes the embryo 7. Umbilical cord- attaches the embryo to the placenta 8. Amnion- embryo develops inside the amniotic sac which contains amniotic fluid that serves as a shock absorber 9. Gestation Period- length of pregnancy (approximately nine months) SACCONE IS THE COOLEST


18                                                                                                                                                                                                   (IV) Multiple Births 1. Identical twins- Develops from one zygote separating into two during cleavage. One sperm and one egg is involved and therefore the babies will look identical and must be of same sex SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

19 Identical twins do not have identical fingerprints
Identical twins do not have identical fingerprints. They are a product of their environment. SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

20 (V) Multiple Births Fraternal twins- Develop from two separate eggs, each fertilized by separate sperm cells. Therefore, the babies may not look identical and could be of different sex. Simply ciblings! SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

21 (V) Multiple Births Fertility drugs often cause production of more than one ovum during ovulation. Septuplets = 7 ova + 7 sperm (7 zygotes) SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

22 (VI) Male Reproductive

23 (A) Testes Are the male gonads Produce sperm
Sperm is produced in the seminiferous tubules and stored in the epididymis Sperm then leaves the epididymis through the vas deferens and into the urethra (which is a tube inside the penis) SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

24 4. The penis is a structural adaptation for internal fertilization
5. Prostate Glands secrete a liquid into the urethra which combines with the sperm cells. This liquid serves as a transport medium for the sperm cells and is called semen 6. Testes also produce the male sex hormone called testosterone SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

25 8. Scrotum- sac in which the testes are located a) outside the body
7. Testosterone regulates the maturation of sperm and the development of secondary sex characteristics such as beard development and voice pitch 8. Scrotum- sac in which the testes are located a) outside the body b) keeps the temperature 1-2 degrees Celsius cooler than normal body temperature c) this provides an optimum temperature for sperm production SACCONE IS THE COOLEST

26 Seminal Vesicles- are glands at the base of the bladder and connected to the prostate gland that provide nutrients for the semen. SACCONE IS THE COOLEST


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