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What you will learn today . . .

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Presentation on theme: "What you will learn today . . ."— Presentation transcript:

1 What you will learn today . . .
1. Sperm formation begins at puberty but continues throughout a male’s lifetime 2. Semen contain sperm from the testes, sugar, alkaline fluids, and prostaglandins from the seminal vesicles, Cowper’s glands, and prostate gland, respectively 3. Egg production begins in the womb, but they do not mature until puberty 4. A mature egg is called an ovum

2 The Reproductive System

3 Hormone Review The testes and ovaries are actually glands that secrete sex hormones, but they also store sperm and eggs. The changes of puberty are initiated by gonadotropins, released by the pituitary gland of the brain.

4 Male Reproductive System
1. Production of sperm – spermatogenesis a. Begins at puberty, continues entire life b. Occurs in the testes Made of compartments called seminiferous tubules, which forms immature haploid spermatids Enclosed within the scrotum which keeps testes away from the body and at a lower temperature for optimal sperm development Cells in the testes also produce testosterone

5 Male Reproductive System

6 Sperm Cell

7 Male Reproductive System
2. The sperm’s journey a. Epididymis: spermatids mature; develop tail and area with mitochondria for energy Sperm can be held here for up to four weeks b. Vas deferens: tube that connect the epididymis to the urethra so sperm can exit the body

8 Male Reproductive System
c. While in the urethra, the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and Cowper’s glands secrete fluids that make up semen Semen contains: High concentrations of fructose that gives sperm energy Alkaline fluids that neutralize the acidic condition of the vagina Prostaglandins that stimulate contractions in the female reproductive tract

9 Male Reproductive System
3. Delivery of sperm a. The penis becomes erect when spongy tissue is engorged with blood; this enables it to deposit sperm in female b. The sperm is expelled during ejaculation, which releases million sperm forced through the penis by smooth muscle contractions c. Components of semen help sperm reach the site of fertilization; most sperm are killed by acidic environment of female reproductive tract

10 Male Reproductive System

11 Female Reproductive System
1. Egg formation a. Occurs in ovaries b. A female is born with all the eggs she will need in her lifetime c. Beginning at puberty the menstrual cycle regulates the maturation of eggs, about one every 28 days; the mature egg is called an ovum

12 Female Reproductive System
2. The ovum’s journey a. An ovum is released from the ovary into the abdominal cavity b. Ovum is swept up into the fallopian tubes by cilia

13 Female Reproductive System
c. Ovum travels from the tubes to the uterus, a hollow muscular organ If the egg is fertilized it will remain in the uterus d. An unfertilized ovum will pass out of the body through the cervix then the vagina

14 Female Reproductive System


16 The menstrual cycle 1. Follicular phase a. An immature egg in the ovary is surrounded by other cells to form a follicle b. Pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) c. FSH and LH cause the follicle to grow d. The follicle cells secrete estrogen which causes the lining of the uterus wall to thicken e. This phase lasts about 14 days, until the follicle reaches the surface of the ovary

17 The menstrual cycle 2. Ovulation
a. A burst of LH causes the follicle to rupture and release an ovum from the ovary b. Ovum is swept into the fallopian tube; it stays in the fallopian tube 48 hours waiting to be fertilized

18 The menstrual cycle 3. Luteal phase
a. The ruptured follicle becomes the corpus luteum b. The corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone that cause the lining of the uterus to continue to thicken c. FSH and LH levels decrease when estrogen and progesterone levels increase

19 The menstrual cycle 4. Menstruation
a. If the ovum is fertilized, it attaches to the lining of the uterus; the corpus luteum continues to secrete estrogen and progesterone b. If the ovum is not fertilized, the corpus luteum disintegrates, so less estrogen and progesterone are secreted c. The lining of the uterus is shed during menstruation; this lasts about five days during the beginning of the follicular phase d. Menstruation occurs from puberty until a woman reaches menopause

20 References

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