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Chapter 9 Section 3 The Byzantine Empire.

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1 Chapter 9 Section 3 The Byzantine Empire

2 Rise of the Byzantines The Greeks were the largest group of people in the empire, but there were many other peoples in the empire as well. These included Egyptians, Syrians, Arabs, Armenians, Jews, Persians, Slavs, and Turks

3 Constantinople Constantine’s capital became the capital of the Byzantine Empire By AD 500s, Constantinople was thriving and one of the world’s great cities.

4 Constantinople’s Success
Location, location, location! It lay on the waterways between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. The harbors offered a safe shelter for fishing boats, trading ships, and warships. Constantinople also sat the crossroads of trade routes between Europe and Asia. The trade that passed through made the city extremely wealthy. It was fairly safe b/c it was protected on three sides by seas. A huge wall defended the fourth side, and a huge chain was strung across the north border for greater protection. The Walls: since its foundation, the old city had been surrounded four times by walls. The city of Byzantium and it fortifications were destroyed by Roman Emperor Septimus Severus in 196 AD, and entirely rebuilt by him. After 330, Emperor Constantine the Great, enlarging the city, built new walls. Having to recall Rome, Constantinople was to be a city of seven hills and fourteen regions

5 Greek Influence Called the “New Rome”* Emperors spoke Latin
and enforced Roman law** Hippodrome was where chariot races took place - Between AD 500 and AD 1200, the Byzantines were one of the richest and advanced societies It’s public buildings and palaces were built in Roman style. **The empire’s poor people received free bread and shows. Wealthy people lived in town or on large farming estates. Over time, they Byzantine Empire became less Roman and more Greek. Most Byzantines spoke Greek and emperors and officials began speaking Greek too. Middle Eastern influences also shaped Byzantine life

6 Byzantine Empire AD 550

7 Emperor Justinian Justinian became emperor of the Byzantine Empire in AD 527 and ruled until AD 565. Strong ruler who controlled the military, made laws, and was supreme judge.

8 Theodora *Justinian’s wife helped him run empire For women’s rights*
Helped Justinian keep his throne in AD 532 when angry taxpayers stormed the palace** *She started out as an actress, and rose the ranks of society when she started dating Justinian. He always turned to her for help and hardly any laws were passed between the time she died and the time he died. Byzantine wife could own land. If she became a widow, she now had the income to take care of her children. **She didn’t want to give up her title as empress, so she talked Justinian into staying.

9 Justinian’s Conquests
Wanted to reunite the Roman Empire and bring back Rome’s glory.* He ordered a general named Belisarius ® to strengthen and lead the Byzantine empire.** Their calvary, soldiers mounted on horses, were successful in conquering most of Italy, northern Africa, and defeated the Persians in the east.*** *He would need to conquer Western Europe and northern Africa. **He organized the army so that they no longer needed to rely upon foot soldiers, so they turned to calvary. They wore armor and carried bows and lances, which were long spears. ***However, Justinian’s empire grew too much too fast and couldn’t be maintained after he died b/c there was not enough money.

10 Justinian’s Law Code Tribonian – headed the group of legal scholars ordered to reform the law code. This new simplified code became known as the Justinian Law Code. Has influenced on laws of almost every country in Europe since then *He felt like the empire’s laws were too disorganized, so he wanted some reforms.

11 Byzantine Civilization
Lasted about 1000 years. Most of the time, Constantinople was the richest and largest city in Europe. Byzantines were highly educated and creative Preserved the Greek culture and passed on Roman law to other people

12 Importance of Trade Between AD 500’s to the AD 1100’s, the Byzantine Empire was the center of trade between Europe and Asia. Most Byzantines were farmers, herders, laborers, and artisans. Weaving silk developed around AD 500 and was one of the major industries* From Asia, ships and caravans brought luxury goods – spices, gems, metals, and cloth – to Constantinople. Byzantine merchants traded farm goods as well as furs, honey, and enslaved people from northern Europe. *Smuggled silkworm eggs out of China. The silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and produced silk threads. Weavers then used the threads to make silk cloth that made the empire rich.

13 Byzantine Art and Architecture
Constantinople was known for its hundreds of churches and palaces. Hagia Sophia – “Holy Wisdom” was one of Justinian’s greatest achievements.* *It was completed in AD 537 and became the religious center of the Byzantine Empire. It still stands today in Istanbul.

14 Hagia Sophia

15 Hagia Sophia

16 Byzantine Art and Architecture
Mosaics – pictures made from many bits of colored glass or stone Important part of Byzantine life Typically depicted saints, which means Christian holy people

17 Byzantine Women Family life was the center of the social life for most Byzantines. Byzantine women were not encouraged to lead independent lives.* Regent – a person who stands in for a ruler who is too young or too ill to govern. *They were expected to stay home and take care of their families. **However, thanks to Empress Theodora women became well educated and involved in poltitics. These royal women served as regents.

18 Byzantine Education Learning was highly respected
Boys studied religion, medicine, law, arithmetic, grammar, and other subjects. Wealthy Byzantines sometimes hired tutors. Girls were usually taught at home Authors wrote about religion* To strengthen faith, they wrote about the lives of saints. Byzantine writers gave an important gift to the world and passed on the writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Without these Byzantine copies, many important works from the ancient world would have disappeared forever.

19 Section 3 Review

20 Section 3 Review What is the largest group of people that lived in the Byzantine Empire? Greeks

21 Section 3 Review What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire?

22 Section 3 Review What was a major reason that Constantinople was so successful? Its location between the waterways of the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea

23 Section 3 What was another name for the Byzantine Empire? Why was it called that? It was called the New Rome because it was heavily influenced by Roman ways.

24 Section 3 Where did the Byzantine chariot races take place?
The Hippodrome

25 Section 3 Review Was Justinian a good emperor? What were some of his accomplishments? He was a strong ruler who commanded the military and ruled as a judge. He also built the Hagia Sophia. He also reformed the law, which was then called the Justinian Law Code.

26 Section 3 Review Who was Justinian’s wife? Why did she talk him into remaining in the empire when the taxpayers rebelled? Theodora. She wanted to keep her title as empress, and she thought her husband should show them that he was a strong emperor.

27 Section 3 Review Who is Belisarius? How did he improve the Byzantine army? He is the general that Justinian ordered to expand the empire. He changed the organization from footed soldiers to calvary, which is soldiers on horses.

28 Section 3 Review What is the Tribonian?
Headed the group of legal scholars ordered to reform the law code.

29 Section 3 Review What is the Hagia Sophia? What does it mean?
A famous church that Justinian built that has beautiful mosaics inside. It means “Holy Wisdom”.

30 Section 3 Review What is a mosaic?
Pictures made from many bits of colored glass or stone

31 Section 3 Review What is a regent?
A person who stands in for a ruler who is too young or too ill to govern

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