2 Rise of the ByzantinesThe Greeks were the largest group of people in the empire, but there were many other peoples in the empire as well.These included Egyptians, Syrians, Arabs, Armenians, Jews, Persians, Slavs, and Turks
3 ConstantinopleConstantine’s capital became the capital of the Byzantine EmpireBy AD 500s, Constantinople was thriving and one of the world’s great cities.
4 Constantinople’s Success Location, location, location! It lay on the waterways between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea. The harbors offered a safe shelter for fishing boats, trading ships, and warships.Constantinople also sat the crossroads of trade routes between Europe and Asia. The trade that passed through made the city extremely wealthy. It was fairly safe b/c it was protected on three sides by seas. A huge wall defended the fourth side, and a huge chain was strung across the north border for greater protection. The Walls: since its foundation, the old city had been surrounded four times by walls. The city of Byzantium and it fortifications were destroyed by Roman Emperor Septimus Severus in 196 AD, and entirely rebuilt by him. After 330, Emperor Constantine the Great, enlarging the city, built new walls. Having to recall Rome, Constantinople was to be a city of seven hills and fourteen regions
5 Greek Influence Called the “New Rome”* Emperors spoke Latin and enforced Romanlaw**Hippodrome waswhere chariot racestook place- Between AD 500 and AD 1200, the Byzantines were one of the richest and advanced societiesIt’s public buildings and palaces were built in Roman style. **The empire’s poor people received free bread and shows. Wealthy people lived in town or on large farming estates. Over time, they Byzantine Empire became less Roman and more Greek. Most Byzantines spoke Greek and emperors and officials began speaking Greek too. Middle Eastern influences also shaped Byzantine life
7 Emperor JustinianJustinian became emperor of the Byzantine Empire in AD 527 and ruled until AD 565.Strong ruler who controlled the military, made laws, and was supreme judge.
8 Theodora *Justinian’s wife helped him run empire For women’s rights* Helped Justinian keep his throne in AD 532 when angry taxpayers stormed the palace***She started out as an actress, and rose the ranks of society when she started dating Justinian. He always turned to her for help and hardly any laws were passed between the time she died and the time he died.Byzantine wife could own land. If she became a widow, she now had the income to take care of her children.**She didn’t want to give up her title as empress, so she talked Justinian into staying.
9 Justinian’s Conquests Wanted to reunite the Roman Empire and bring back Rome’s glory.*He ordered a general named Belisarius ® to strengthen and lead the Byzantine empire.**Their calvary, soldiers mounted on horses, were successful in conquering most of Italy, northern Africa, and defeated the Persians in the east.****He would need to conquer Western Europe and northern Africa.**He organized the army so that they no longer needed to rely upon foot soldiers, so they turned to calvary. They wore armor and carried bows and lances, which were long spears.***However, Justinian’s empire grew too much too fast and couldn’t be maintained after he died b/c there was not enough money.
10 Justinian’s Law CodeTribonian – headed the group of legal scholars ordered to reform the law code.This new simplified code became known as the Justinian Law Code.Has influenced on laws of almost every country in Europe since then*He felt like the empire’s laws were too disorganized, so he wanted some reforms.
11 Byzantine Civilization Lasted about 1000 years.Most of the time, Constantinople was the richest and largest city in Europe.Byzantines were highly educated and creativePreserved the Greek culture and passed on Roman law to other people
12 Importance of TradeBetween AD 500’s to the AD 1100’s, the Byzantine Empire was the center of trade between Europe and Asia.Most Byzantines were farmers, herders, laborers, and artisans.Weaving silk developed around AD 500 and was one of the major industries*From Asia, ships and caravans brought luxury goods – spices, gems, metals, and cloth – to Constantinople. Byzantine merchants traded farm goods as well as furs, honey, and enslaved people from northern Europe.*Smuggled silkworm eggs out of China. The silkworms fed on mulberry leaves and produced silk threads. Weavers then used the threads to make silk cloth that made the empire rich.
13 Byzantine Art and Architecture Constantinople was known for its hundreds of churches and palaces.Hagia Sophia – “Holy Wisdom” was one of Justinian’s greatest achievements.**It was completed in AD 537 and became the religious center of the Byzantine Empire. It still stands today in Istanbul.
16 Byzantine Art and Architecture Mosaics – pictures made from many bits of colored glass or stoneImportant part of Byzantine lifeTypically depicted saints, which means Christian holy people
17 Byzantine WomenFamily life was the center of the social life for most Byzantines.Byzantine women were not encouraged to lead independent lives.*Regent – a person who stands in for a ruler who is too young or too ill to govern.*They were expected to stay home and take care of their families. **However, thanks to Empress Theodora women became well educated and involved in poltitics. These royal women served as regents.
18 Byzantine Education Learning was highly respected Boys studied religion, medicine, law, arithmetic, grammar, and other subjects.Wealthy Byzantines sometimes hired tutors.Girls were usually taught at homeAuthors wrote about religion*To strengthen faith, they wrote about the lives of saints. Byzantine writers gave an important gift to the world and passed on the writings of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Without these Byzantine copies, many important works from the ancient world would have disappeared forever.
20 Section 3 ReviewWhat is the largest group of people that lived in the Byzantine Empire?Greeks
21 Section 3 Review What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? Constantinople
22 Section 3 ReviewWhat was a major reason that Constantinople was so successful?Its location between the waterways of the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea
23 Section 3What was another name for the Byzantine Empire? Why was it called that?It was called the New Rome because it was heavily influenced by Roman ways.
24 Section 3 Where did the Byzantine chariot races take place? The Hippodrome
25 Section 3 ReviewWas Justinian a good emperor? What were some of his accomplishments?He was a strong ruler who commanded the military and ruled as a judge. He also built the Hagia Sophia. He also reformed the law, which was then called the Justinian Law Code.
26 Section 3 ReviewWho was Justinian’s wife? Why did she talk him into remaining in the empire when the taxpayers rebelled?Theodora. She wanted to keep her title as empress, and she thought her husband should show them that he was a strong emperor.
27 Section 3 ReviewWho is Belisarius? How did he improve the Byzantine army?He is the general that Justinian ordered to expand the empire. He changed the organization from footed soldiers to calvary, which is soldiers on horses.
28 Section 3 Review What is the Tribonian? Headed the group of legal scholars ordered to reform the law code.
29 Section 3 Review What is the Hagia Sophia? What does it mean? A famous church that Justinian built that has beautiful mosaics inside. It means “Holy Wisdom”.
30 Section 3 Review What is a mosaic? Pictures made from many bits of colored glass or stone
31 Section 3 Review What is a regent? A person who stands in for a ruler who is too young or too ill to govern