Presentation on theme: "Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood"— Presentation transcript:
1 Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood Chapter 8:Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood
2 Theories of Social and Personality Development Psychoanalytic Perspectives Freud: gain control over bodily functions and renegotiate parent relationshipsAnal StagePhallic StageFreud: Gain control over bodily functions and renegotiate parent relationshipsAnal StageToilet training battlesControl over bodily functionsPhallic StageOedipus or Electra ComplexIdentification with the same sex parent
3 Theories of Social and Personality Development Psychoanalytic Perspectives Erikson: agreed with Freud with added focus on social skill developmentAutonomy versus Shame and DoubtInitiative versus GuiltFreud and Erikson saw the changing role of the parent as the child exerts more control on the environment.Freud and Erikson did not talk about peers or their significance in development.Erikson: agreed with Freud with added focus on social skill developmentAutonomy versus Shame and DoubtCentered around toddler’s new mobility and desire for autonomyInitiative versus GuiltUshered in by new cognitive skillsDeveloping conscience dictates boundaries
4 Personality and Self-Concept Me, myself, and more Components of Self-ConceptCategorical SelfEmotional SelfSocial SelfSelf-ConceptCategorical SelfFocus on visible characteristicsEmotional SelfAcquisition of emotional self-regulationAssociated with peer popularityLack of control associated with aggressionAbility to obey moral rulesAssociated with emergence of empathySocial SelfChild sees self as player in social gamesLearns many social scripts, which provide appropriate situational behaviorsPersonality begins to replace temperament as children interact with peers and family.Control of emotions shifts from parental control to the child.Children begin to internalize the values of the parent.Parents who expect age-related behaviors increase the switch to self control.
5 Gender Development Explanations and Theory: Psychoanalytic ExplanationsSocial-Cognitive ExplanationsGender Schema TheoryPsychoanalytic ExplanationsIdentification with same sex parentSocial-Cognitive ExplanationsLinked to gender-related behaviorBecomes motivated to exhibit same-sex behaviorsParents shape sex role behaviors and attitudesGender Schema TheoryLearn gender scriptsLearn likes and dislikes of own genderDevelops a complex view of other gender
6 Gender Development Gender Concept Sequence Gender understanding develops in stages:Gender identityGender stabilityGender constancyGender understanding develops in stages:Gender identityChild’s ability to label his or her own sex correctlyGender stabilityUnderstanding that you are the same gender throughout lifeGender constancyRecognition that someone stays the same gender even though appearances may change with clothing
7 Figure 8.2 Gender Stereotyping in a Child’s Drawing “This is how I will look when I grow up.”What is this five-year-old conveying about her understanding of gender?
9 Gender Development Sex-Role Knowledge Gender stereotypes: MenGender stereotypes: WomenWomen associated with gentleness, weakness, appreciativeness, and soft-heartednessMen associated with aggression, strength, cruelty, and coarseness.Children learn these stereotypes by 3 or 4Can assign stereotypical behaviors to jobs, toys, and activitiesBy age 5, children begin to associate personality traits with genderWhat are the stereotypes?
10 Gender Development Sex-Typed Behavior Sex-type behavior:Develops earlier than ideas about genderLearned from older same-sex childrenLearned differently by genderDevelops earlier than ideas about gender18 – 24 months – children prefer sex-stereotyped toysAge 3 – children prefer same-sex friendsLearn from older same-sex childrenSex-typed behaviors are learned differently.Girls use an enabling styleSupporting a friend, expressing agreement, making suggestionsBoys use a constricting or restrictive styleDerails inappropriate interactions, bringing them to an end
11 Figure 8.3 Gender and Playmate Preferences How would you structure preschooler play opportunities?
12 Family Relationships and Structure Parenting Styles: Diana Baumrind DimensionsParenting StylesDiana BaumrindFocused on 4 dimensionsWarmth or nurturanceClarity and consistency of rulesMaturity of expectations and demandsCommunications between child and parentThree parenting stylesAuthoritarianPermissiveAuthoritativeMaccoby and Miller add uninvolved, neglecting
13 Figure 8.4 Control, Acceptance, Parenting Style Maccoby and Martin expanded on Baumrind’s categories
14 Family Relationships and Structure Parenting Styles: Authoritarian Parenting CharacteristicsHigh levels of demand and controlLow levels of warmth and communicationChild ConsequencesGood school performanceLower self-esteem and less peer interaction skillsSome subdued; others highly aggressiveTraits last well into high school
15 Family Relationships and Structure Parenting Styles: Permissive Parenting CharacteristicsHigh in warmth and communicationLow in demand and controlChild ConsequencesPoor adolescent school performanceMore aggressive and immatureLess responsible and independent
16 Family Relationships and Structure Parenting Styles: Authoritative Parenting CharacteristicsHigh in warmth and communicationHigh in demand and controlChild ConsequencesHigher self-esteem, independence, and altruismMore parental complianceSelf-confident and achievement-orientedBetter school performanceMost consistently positive outcomes
17 Family Relationships and Structure Parenting Styles: Uninvolved Parenting CharacteristicsLow in levels of demand and controlLow in levels of warmth and communicationChild ConsequencesDisturbances in social relationshipsMore impulsive and antisocial in adolescenceLess competent with peersMuch less achievement-oriented in schoolMaccoby and Martin add the Uninvolved TypeMost consistently negative outcomes
18 Figure 8.5 Parenting Style and Grades Making the gradeGrades varied with parenting style in Steinberg and Dombusch’s Study. Can you think of a way to explain this?
20 Family Relationships and Structure Effects of Parenting Styles: Spanking Most parents believe spanking effective if used sparinglyShort-term effectsLong-term effectsPremack’s principleST: works; temporarily reduces undesirable behaviorLT: models infliction of pain; associates spanking parents with physical pain; leads to family climate of emotional rejection; higher levels of aggression between children who are spanked and those who are notPremack’s principle: Any high-frequency activity can be used as a reinforcer for any lower-frequency activity.
21 Is “authoritative” always best? Authoritative patternPositive outcomes seen in all ethnic groupsMore common in white families and middle classUsually more common among intact familiesLeast common among Asian AmericansSee Figure 8.4, page 206.Teenagers raised in and authoritative household showed more self-reliance and less delinquency in whites and Hispanics.Strong connections between authoritarian pattern and school performance and social competence appear for Asian Americans and African Americans.
22 Figure 8.6 Social Class, Ethnicity, and Parenting Style Key variables may be parenting goals rather than ethnicityParenting style may be related to style which enhances child’s potential for success
23 Ethnicity, Socio-Economic Status and Parenting Styles Authoritarian pattern in Asian American familiesHigh levels of school achievement in Asian American childrenEconomic successMaintenance of ethnic identity
24 Ethnicity, Socio-Economic Status and Parenting Styles Authoritarian pattern in African American familiesEnhances children’s potential for self-control and successPrepares children to deal with social forces such as racism that impede social successReduces use of substance abuseMore common among poor families
25 ??Questions To PonderWhat kind of parenting style was used to raise you? What effects did it have on your development? What style will you use as a parent?
26 Family Relationships and Structure Family Structure: Diversity in Two-Parent and Single-Parent FamiliesOnly 70% of U.S. children lived with both biological parents in 2007.Many children from two-parent families have experienced single-parenting.2% of U.S. children live with custodial grandparents.
27 Ethnicity and U.S. Family Types Estimate of 3 family types among white, African American, Asian American, Native American, and Hispanic American children in U.S.Figure Ethnicity and Family Structure
28 Family Structure and Ethnicity Single Parents Family Structure: Single-Parent FamiliesMore common among African Americans and Native AmericansSingle mothers are less likely to marry.Grandparents and other relatives traditionally help support single mothers.Some single mothers are financially secure.More common among African Americans and Native AmericansThese groups have higher rates of births to single mothersSingle mothers are less likely to marryGrandparents and other relatives traditionally help support single mothersLook at Figure 8.5Look at Figure 8.6
29 Family Relationships and Structure Other Types of Family Structures Custodial GrandparentsAging and parenting stress cause anxiety and depression.Gay and Lesbian ParentsNo expressed social or cognitive developmental differences between the children of gay and lesbian parents and the children of heterosexual couples.Concerns about children’s sex-role identity and orientation are not supported by research
30 Family Relationships and Structure Divorce: Impact on Children Declines in school performanceMore aggressive, defiant, or depressed behaviorsHigher incidence of adolescent criminal behaviorStep-children differencesHigher risk of mental problems in adulthoodLack financial and emotional support needed for success in collegeStruggle with fears of intimacy in relationshipsMore likely to divorce themselvesShort term: effects are more severe for boysChildren in step-parent families have higher rates of delinquency, more behavior problems, and lower gradesDivorceCreates financial hardships.Transitions create upheaval lasting several years.Parenting patterns shifts away from authoritative.Extended families can mitigate some difficulties with divorce.
31 Peer Relationships Kinds of Play Successful play associated with development of social skillsSolitary playParallel playCooperative playSolitary playAll ages of childrenParallel play14 – 18 monthsCooperative play3 – 4 years old
32 Can you define two types of aggression? Aggression: Behavior intended to hurt another or objectInstrumentalHostileInitial aggression in 2 – 3-year-oldsHitting and throwing thingsInstrumental – intended to obtain something a child wantsOlder childrenHostile aggression – used to hurt another or to gain advantageWith good verbal skills comes verbal aggressionPhysical aggression declines as dominance hierarchies emergeDominance hierarchies – arrangements of children into pecking order of leaders and followers.
33 Prosocial Behavior and Friendships Prosocial behavior: Actions that benefit or help another personDevelopment of prosocial behavior increases during preschool years.Parental influences affect children’s empathy.Development of Prosocial BehaviorEvident at 2 – 3 years of ageSome behaviors increase with ageChildren who show altruistic behaviors are popular with peersParental InfluencesLoving and warm family climateExplain consequences clearly to childrenProvide prosocial attributions – positive statements about the underlying cause for helpful behavior