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PRESCHOOLER SOCIAL/ EMOTIONAL DEV Chapter 13. HALLMARKS Increased desire to socialize Improved socialization skills: compromise, empathy, negotiation,

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Presentation on theme: "PRESCHOOLER SOCIAL/ EMOTIONAL DEV Chapter 13. HALLMARKS Increased desire to socialize Improved socialization skills: compromise, empathy, negotiation,"— Presentation transcript:


2 HALLMARKS Increased desire to socialize Improved socialization skills: compromise, empathy, negotiation, other’s point of view & motivation, more verbal SUCCESSFUL FRIENDSHIPS IN PRESCHOOL MAY BE THE SINGLE MOST POWERFUL PREDICTOR OF ADULT HAPPINESS

3 EMOTIONAL GROWTH Erikson: –Stage 1: trust v mistrust –Stage 2: autonomy v shame and doubt –Stage 3: Initiative v guilt Kids should be in not overly critical environments that encourage risk taking, creativity, process (v product) (Guilt/accountability can lead child to take responsibility for own behavior)

4 SOCIAL INITIATIVE An eagerness to engage with friends, family

5 INITIATIVE & CULTURE Initiative isn’t a universal value –Obedience –Enmeshment –Females INITIATIVE MAY BE EXPRESSED ONLY IN SOME CONTEXTS

6 SELF-CONCEPT A person’s “theory of self” Especially in youth, self-concept is dev Positive self-concept for children is based on trying (more than on results) Success for a preschooler: –Make an effort –Get positive responses from peers and adults –Follow the rules

7 SOCIAL COMPETENCE Being liked and effective social interaction Social competence is culturally defined Adults must help kids acquire these skills over time

8 PEER STATUS Peer view of a child’s social competence Popular: use language effectively socially See chart p 292

9 Rejected: antisocial behaviors such as aggression-intent to harm (proactive/reactive) See Chart p 294 Inability to accurately interpret social cues –May have punitive parents –May have negative temperament

10 Neglected: ignored; prefer to be alone Cautious, timid May be situational ex. loner at school but not at home See chart p. 296

11 FRIENDSHIP Having even 1 friend is important: –Prevents isolation –Dev play competencies –Most kids have at least 1 friend

12 SOCIAL PARTICIPATION A developmental skill: unoccupied--little awareness of surroundings onlooker--interested in contact, observer parallel--side by side but rarely converses associative--different themes but converses cooperative play (4-5 yrs)--shared goal

13 AGGRESSION Any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm or threaten (see chart p 303) Physical: bite, hit, push, kick Verbal: tease, threaten, taunt, call names Aggression is culturally defined Feelings of recipient need be considered NOT aggression: rough and tumble, being assertive, conflict, argument, teasing (friendly)

14 Reactive aggression: Proactive aggression:socially most detrimental –Instrumental: there is a goal (get the toy) –Bullying: no clear goal (hostile)

15 VICTIM Depressed, whines, anxious, withdrawn, cries, not assertive Victims attract aggression because crying makes the aggressor feel more powerful

16 CAUSES OF AGGRESSION MATURATIONISTS: born that way PSYCHOANALISTS:aggressive drives can be modified by experience BEHAVIORISTS: aggression is modeled by people and media (and result is you get rewarded) SOCIOCULTURAL: scaffolding in ZPD

17 COGNITIVE: kids can think about and change behaviors ECOLOGICAL: systems cause aggression- Poverty, violent media, etc. EACH MODEL CAN GIVE US IDEAS FOR ELIMINATING AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIORS IN KIDS IN OUR CARE See case studies

18 SOCIAL BEHAVIORS & CULTURE Altruism & empathy; kids who live in extended families and who contribute to family tasks seem to score highest Cooperation: seems to be fostered by collectivism Play: differs between cultures: type, amount See chart p. 307

19 Shyness: is valued more in some cultures Rough play and teasing: are valued only in some cultures Peer acceptance: is not usually related to ethnicity in young children I’M CHOCOLATE, YOU’RE VANILLA, by Marguerite Wright

20 SOURCES OF VARIATION IN SOCIAL COMPETENCE Poverty, as it is a reflection of –Poor parenting –Domestic violence –Abuse –Mental health disorders

21 Siblings: a mixed “picture” Most conflict exists between sibs of same sex and similar age Sibling relationships have great importance throughout our lives Sibling relationships are useful in teaching social lessons Single kids may be intellectually, linguistically advanced and more creative

22 CHILD CARE Good quality child care seems to be good for kids Poor quality child care is not good for kids More than 1/2 the child care in Alameda county was rated fair to poor in a recent study

23 GENDER AND SOCIAL DEV By 18 months kids are playing with sex- stereotyped toys By 2 yrs they are playing with same sex peers Differences in boy/girl play styles appear to be universal

24 POSSIBLE CAUSES Modeling from adults and media Cognitive dev of sex role definitions Should caregivers try to expand on sex role definitions? It is our choice!

25 SPECIAL NEEDS KIDS Observable handicaps are less likely to lead to peer rejection because they are easier to understand than non-observable handicaps Adults should encourage play between handicapped kids and peers through Physical accessibility Choice of toys Modeling, guiding and teaching by adults

26 FACILITATING FRIENDSHIPS Watch for “authentic” compatible kids Orchestrate one-on-one play Encourage group play Encourage play outside classroom

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