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Seoul Foreign School IB Extended Essay Research Ethics.

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Presentation on theme: "Seoul Foreign School IB Extended Essay Research Ethics."— Presentation transcript:

1 Seoul Foreign School IB Extended Essay Research Ethics.

2 What do we mean by research ethics An ‘ethic’ is a moral principle or a code of conduct which … governs what people do. It is concerned with the way people act or behave. The term ‘ethics’ usually refers to the moral principles, guiding conduct, which are held by a group or even a profession (though there is no logical reason why individuals should not have their own ethical code)” (Wellington, 2000: 54)

3 Types of data “[primary sources] provide the raw data that you first use to test the working hypothesis and then add evidence to support your claim. In history, for example primary sources include documents from the period or person you are studying, objects, maps, clothing; in literature or philosophy, your primary resource is usually the text you are studying, and your data are the words on the page. In such fields you can rarely write a research paper without using primary sources.” However there are exceptions.

4 Secondary data. "Secondary sources are research reports that use primary data to solve research problems, written for scholarly and professional audiences. Researchers read them to keep up with their field and use what they read to frame problems of their own by disputing other researchers' conclusions or questioning their methods. ” If you are writing a paper in psychology you must choose secondary sources.

5 © International Baccalaureate Organization 2011 Ethical guidelines for extended essays research and fieldwork The following guidelines apply to research and fieldwork in all extended essays. Extended essay students must exercise the greatest sensitivity to local and international cultures. Any research/fieldwork that creates anxiety, stress, pain or discomfort for participants is not permitted. Any research/fieldwork that involves unjustified deception, involuntary participation or invasion of privacy, including inappropriate use of information technology (IT), email and the internet, is prohibited. All participants in research activities must be informed before commencing the research that they have the right to withdraw at any time. Pressure must not be placed on any individual participant to continue with the investigation beyond this point. Each participant must be informed of the aims and objectives of the research and in addition be shown the results of the research.

6 Informed consent should be obtained from the people who are the subject of the fieldwork. Research involving children needs the written consent of parent(s) or guardian(s). Students must ensure that parents are fully informed about the implications for children who take part in such research. Where research is conducted with children in a school, the written consent of the teachers concerned must also be obtained. Extended essay students must avoid conducting research with any adult who is not in a fit state of mind and cannot respond freely and independently. If any participant shows stress and/or pain at any stage of the research, the research must finish immediately, and the participant must be allowed to withdraw. Participants must be debriefed and given the right to withdraw their own personal data and responses. Anonymity for each participant must be guaranteed. All data collected must be kept in a confidential and responsible manner and not divulged to any other person. Research that is conducted online, using IT methods, is subject to the same guidelines. Any data collected online must be deleted once the research has been completed. Such data must not be used for any purpose other than the conduct of the research.

7 Standard ethical principles / obligations to (prospective) research participants Fully informed consent of prospective participants & (for minors) ‘responsible others’. Researcher should provide information about: – the aims and nature of the research – identity and contact details of researchers – likely duration of research & their involvement – who will have access to data – how data will be stored – possible consequences of participation and of the research – whether participants would have right to see/amend transcripts, comment on provisional data analyses etc. – how results are likely to be disseminated – the extent to which confidentiality and anonymity will be protected

8 Standard ethical principles / obligations to (prospective) research participants (cont.) Participants’ right to withdraw from study Confidentiality – whilst researchers know who has provided data, they should not make this known to others Anonymity Non-traceability Protection of participants’ welfare – attempt to ensure that participants are not harmed or detrimentally affected by the research Respect for participants’ right to privacy Respect for knowledge – ‘pursuit of truth’ Sensitivity to differences relating (for example) to age, culture, disability, race, sex, religion, sexual orientation.

9 Responsibilities You need to be responsible, choose the appropriate research method and apply the ethical guidelines. Work with your supervisor. Record your resources and make sure you reference them. Internet resources are an excellent resource for recorded data. Eg statistics, weather data. Make sure they are reliable sites and reference accordingly. Your report will be scrutinised by ‘’ make sure it is your own work and carefully cite all sources.

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