PPA 501 – Research Methods in Administration Lecture 2b - Ethics.
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PPA 501 – Research Methods in Administration Lecture 2b - Ethics
Introduction The nature of research creates a special relationship between researchers and their human subjects. Researchers require the cooperation of human subjects to conduct investigations. Subjects rely on researchers to treat them ethically and respectfully.
Introduction Administrative students may believe that administrative or policy research rarely puts a subject at risk. The risks are more than trivial. Administrators should be sensitive to issues surrounding research with human subjects and recognize how research participation can cause a subject distress.
Illustrative cases Tuskegee Syphilis Study – informed consent Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital – informed consent University of Chicago Law School – loss of secrecy Laud Humphreys – deceptive research Stanley Milgram – deceptive research
Informed consent Informed consent is a cornerstone of ethical research. A subject must be informed of the purpose of the research and the risks that be incurred if she participates. Guidelines are insufficient. The research must also be subject to a review process.
Informed consent Informed consent not only means that a person consents to participate as a research subject; she must have sufficient information about the possible risks and reasonably expected benefits to decide whether the benefits are worth the risks.
Informed consent What are the risks? Physical harm, pain or discomfort. Embarrassment Loss of privacy Loss of time Inconvenience Undermining confidence in public institutions Undermining interpersonal trust
Informed consent What are the benefits? Treatments for physical or psychological problems. Benefit to valued groups Interesting subject and minimal risk Overall, informed consent implies identifying the ratio of risks to benefits.
Informed consent If the subjects are at risk, the researchers must answer three questions Are the benefits sufficient to justify the risk? Are the rights and well-being of the subjects adequately protected? Are the means of getting informed consent adequate and appropriate?
Informed consent What constitutes sufficient information for informed consent? General purpose of the study Reasons for selection Procedures, purposes, and risks, including unknown risks What will be done with the information
Informed consent Research participation is voluntary. Some populations are especially at risk Students Prisoners Patients Children Aged Mentally disabled Voluntary withdrawal
Protecting confidentiality Privacy – individual’s ability to control access of other people to information about herself. Confidentiality – the protection of information, so that researchers cannot or will not disclose records with individual identifiers. Anonymity – the collection of information, so that researchers cannot link any piece of data to a specific, named individual.
Protecting confidentiality Research records – records gathered and maintained for the purpose of describing or making generalizations about groups of persons. Voluntary participation and informed consent are designed to guarantee confidentiality