A large organization composed of appointed officials whose authority is divided among several managers.
Hierarchical structure Specialization Consistent, abstract rules Impersonality Career system Specific goals
A large organization composed of appointed officials whose authority is divided among several managers. Bureaucratic departments make up the executive branch Executive Departments execute laws Executive Departments are created by Congress
1789: State, Treasury, War 1798: Navy 1849: Interior 1870: Justice 1872: Post Office 1889: Agriculture 1903: Commerce and Labor (split in 1913 into Commerce Dept. and Labor Dept.)
1947: Defense (from War) 1953: Health, Education & Welfare (split into HHS and Education in 1973) 1965: Housing and Urban Development 1966: Transportation 1977: Energy 1979: Education 1989: Veterans’ Affairs 2003: Homeland Security
Agricultural Import and Entry Inspection Activities Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Transportation Security Administration U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services U.S. Coast Guard U.S. Customs and Border Protection U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement U.S. Secret Service Congress creates agencies and says how they fit into the bureaucracy Congress decides how much money they have to spend each year
Depends on the agency! Food Inspection Service (FDA) Food Inspection Service (FDA) Bureau of Labor Statistics Bureau of Labor Statistics FBI FBI Most civilian federal employees are in the “Civil Service”
Example: Meat inspection: For the purpose of preventing the use in commerce of meat and meat food products which are adulterated, the Secretary shall cause to be made, by inspectors appointed for that purpose, an examination and inspection of all cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses, mules, and other equines before they shall be allowed to enter into any slaughtering, packing, meat-canning, rendering, or similar establishment, in which they are to be slaughtered and the meat and meat food products thereof are to be used in commerce; and all cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses, mules, and other equines found on such inspection to show symptoms of disease shall be set apart and slaughtered separately from all other cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses, mules, or other equines, and when so slaughtered the carcasses of said cattle, sheep, swine, goats, horses, mules, or other equines shall be subject to a careful examination and inspection, all as provided by the rules and regulations to be prescribed by the Secretary, as provided for in this subchapter. found on such inspection to show symptoms of disease Federal Meat Inspection Act, Title 21 - Food and Drugs, Chapter 12 - Meat Inspection, SUBCHAPTER I - INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS; ADULTERATION AND MISBRANDING
Congress tells them to Executive departments need more specific instructions: For employees For private entities So bureaucrats issue statements of policy and Regulations
What are the mechanisms for democratic control of the bureaucracy? Congress: lawmaking Congress: oversight Congress: budget President: budget President: regulatory review
Independent agencies & regulatory commissions Peace Corps The Federal Reserve Board National Transportation Safety Board Nuclear Regulatory Commission See box 8.4 in text What makes them insulated? Why are they insulated?
What do we complain about when we complain about red tape? Too many constraints Pointless constraints Constraints slow us down
Protecting people from each other Alleviating distress Forestalling systematic disruptions Representative process Due process Can anything really be done about red tape?
How to balance forest health against public use? Whether to make “the morning after” pill available over the counter? Whether global warming is a real phenomenon?