2 Setting the SceneBy 1900, the United States had emerged as a genuine world power.It controlled several overseas territories and had a large and vigorous economy.
3 Setting the SceneAfter the assassination of President William McKinley, his Vice President Theodore Roosevelt became President in 1901.
4 The Panama CanalThe Spanish-American War brought home to Americans the need for a shorter route between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans.A canal built across Central America would link the two oceans, making global shipping much faster and cheaper.
5 Building the CanalThe Isthmus of Panama was the ideal location for a route.In 1879, a French company bought the rights from Columbia to build a canal across Panama.In 1902, Congress authorized the purchase of French assets.
6 Building the Canal The act required negotiations, which went nowhere. After a revolt, Panama was recognized as independent with the U.S. as its protector.Construction of the canal began in 1904.
7 Building the CanalWorkers were brought in from several countries and trained.The canal was finished in 1914, six months ahead of schedule and $23 million under budget.
8 Reaction to the CanalRoosevelt’s opponents did not appreciate the methods he had used to secure the Canal Zone.Most Americans, convinced that the canal was vital to national security and prosperity, approved of President Roosevelt’s actions in Panama.
9 Reaction to the CanalThe Panama Canal left a legacy of ill will among Latin Americans toward the U.S.In recognition of the illegal means in which the Canal was acquired, Congress voted to pay $25 million to Columbia in 1921, two years after Roosevelt had died.
10 Roosevelt’s Big Stick Diplomacy “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.” – African ProverbIn Roosevelt’s view, the “big stick” was the United States Navy.
11 The Roosevelt Corollary In December 1904 & 1905, Roosevelt issued messages to Congress, known as the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.In this Corollary, Roosevelt denied that the U.S. wanted any more territory.
12 The Roosevelt Corollary The U.S. would however intervene in foreign territories to prevent intervention from other powers.U.S. intervention in Latin America became common, but angered many Latin Americans.
13 The Roosevelt Corollary It also angered Congress who felt Roosevelt was weakening their power, while strengthening his own.
14 Roosevelt as Peacemaker In Asia, the President’s chief concern was to preserve an open door to trade with China.However the Russo-Japanese War, which began in 1904, posed a great threat to Asian security.
15 Roosevelt as Peacemaker In August 1905, Roosevelt mediated a peace agreement to the Russo-Japanese War.In doing this, Roosevelt succeeded in making trade in China open to all nations.His role as mediator won him the Nobel peace prize.
16 Foreign Policy After Roosevelt Under Roosevelt’s presidency, the U.S. assumed a forceful role in foreign affairs.His successors were thrown into a complex mix of political alliances and world events.
17 Foreign Policy After Roosevelt William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson both continued Roosevelt’s legacy, but with unique methods of diplomacy.
18 Taft and Dollar Diplomacy William Howard Taft, elected President in 1908, was not as aggressive as Roosevelt in pursuing foreign policy aims.Taft’s main foreign policy goals were to maintain the open door to Asia and preserve stability in Latin America.
19 Taft and Dollar Diplomacy Taft “substituted dollars for bullets,” using dollar diplomacy.Although dollar diplomacy increased American power, it also created enemies in Latin America and other foreign countries.
20 Wilson and Mexican Revolution President Woodrow Wilson’s intervention in Mexico led to further anti-American feelings in Latin America.Wilson stopped using Taft’s dollar policy and announced that the U.S. would apply moral and legalistic standards to foreign policy decision.
21 Wilson and Mexican Revolution Wilson’s “moral decision” did not work well.His interference in Mexican affairs soured relations between the two countries for years to come.