2 The Inter-war YearsThe Treaty of Versailles (1919) - Post WWI settlement was very harsh on the Germans:De-militarizationCould not fortify their border with FranceForced to pay huge amounts of reparationsHow do you think the Germans felt about this?
3 The Rise of Benito Mussolini in Italy Italians felt they had been shortchanged in the peace settlement after the war (they gained very little territory)Mussolini uses this dissatisfaction to gain political support. He is named prime minister.Soon, he gains enough support to claim a dictatorship.Mussolini begins his expansion by attacking and occupying Ethiopia (in Africa)
4 The Rise of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Worker’s Party) Appealed to Germans who were suffering through Great Depression, which was made worse by war debt.Adolf Hitler - Becomes leader of the Nazi party.1933- Nazi party wins plurality (not majority) in the German government. Hitler is named chancellor and immediately begins to clamp down on opposition parties.
5 Nazi IdeologyMilitarism - military virtues are good virtues - discipline, obedience, self sacrificeAnti-SemitismThe hatred of Jews.Form of prejudice with deep roots in Western civilizationRacial/National Pride - The Aryan race (blond, blue-eyed Germans) was the “master” race.Mein Kampf - “My Struggle” - Written by Hitler, it spells out his Nazi beliefs.
7 Both Hitler and Mussolini created fascist governments. Der Fuhrer - (The Leader)Il Duce - (The Leader)Both Hitler and Mussolini created fascist governments.Fascism - a political philosophy that values the nation or the race above the individual.
8 Nazi AggressionGermany re-militarizes the Rhineland, a direct violation of the Versailles TreatyResponse: None. France and Britain were not prepared to go to war over this issue.
9 Nazi AggressionAnschluss - The German annexation of Austria Another direct violation of the Versailles TreatyWhy? - Germany had long wanted to incorporate Austria into a larger German state because of their similar heritage. The Austrian government offered little political and no military resistance.
10 Nazi AggressionThe Sudentenland Crisis:Germany demanded possession of a region of Czechoslovakia called the Sudentenland, because the population was ethnically German
11 The Munich Agreements and Appeasement At a conference in Munich (Germany) Britain and France agree to allow Hitler to occupy the Sudetenland in exchange for a German promise not to seek any other territorial gains.Appeasement: French and British policy throughout the 1930s where they attempted to keep the peace in Europe by giving into Hitler’s demands.Hitler soon broke his promise and took over all of Czechoslovakia
12 From left to right: Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured before signing the Munich Agreement.
13 Stalin and the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (1939) Hitler and Stalin surprised everyone when they formed an alliance.Both Germany and the USSR had their eyes on parts of Poland.With Germany’s biggest threat to the east taken care of, they could begin plans for further expansion.Why would an alliance between the USSR and Germany surprise many people?
14 Developments in AsiaJapan had long been frustrated by their limited role in Asia due to the Imperial influence of Western nations. They also felt they were racially superior to their Asian counterparts.Greater East Asian Co Prosperity Sphere - Japan’s idea that they would spread into the East Asian region where they would dominate economically and politicallyJapanese attacked Manchuria - region in northeast China. They continued expansion into mainland China in the late 1930s.