2 Evaluate the merits of different systems in given situations A Lesson 5: Revison- Using the Specimen question paperTargetOutcomeWho?KeywordsExplain the role of work in satisfying human needs• Understand the concept of human needs such asphysiological and social needs• Understand how work can help satisfy such needsCIdentify the different methods of financial reward• Explain the different payment systems such as time rates,piece rates, bonus payments, performance rates andprofit sharing• Understand the significance of different methods• Show understanding of non financial methods such asfringe benefits• Understand when benefits such as discounts onproducts, free accommodation, use of company car mightbe usedBEvaluate the merits of different systems in given situationsA2
4 Motivation:Motivation is the strength of commitment that individuals have to what they are doingWorkplace motivation is concerned with commitment to an organisation and its objectives and targets.The factors which INSPIRE an employee to complete a task at work.
8 Activity Self-respect, confidence Proving what you can do Put these needs in order of importanceSelf-respect, confidenceProving what you can doFriendship, contact, love, sexFreedom, stabilityCreativityFood, shelter8
10 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Scope of new skills, meet new challenges and development of one’s full potentialSelf-actualisationStatus, power, trust, recognitionSelf-esteem needsTeam working, communication, social facilitiesSocial needsJob security, a clear job role, clear lines of accountabilitySecurity NeedsPay levels and working conditionsBasic Needs/Physical Needs
13 Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Workers are motivated by moneyWorkers are lazy and dislike workWorkers are selfish, ignore the need of the organisation, avoid responsibility and lack ambitionWorkers need to be ontrolled and directed by managementTheory YWorkers may have many different needs which motivate themWorkers can enjoy workIf motivated, workers can organise themselves and take responsibilityManagement should create a situation where workers can show creativity and apply knowledge to job.
15 Herzberg’s two factor theory Research into job satisfaction and dissatisfactionBased on 200 accountants and engineers in Pennsylvania, USAAsked to describe events that gave ‘good feelings’ about their jobs – Then probed why.
16 Herzberg’s two factor theory Five factors stood out:AchievementRecognition for achievementThe work itselfResponsibilityAdvancement
17 Herzberg’s two factor theory He pointed out that each of these factors concerned the job itself - rather than issues such as pay or status.Herzberg called these five factors ‘the motivators’.
18 Herzberg’s two factor theory The researches then asked about ‘Bad feelings’ about their jobsThis revealed a separate set of five causes:Company policy and administrationSupervisionSalaryInterpersonal relationsWorking conditions
20 Herzberg’s two factor theory He concluded that the common theme was factors which ‘surround the job’, rather than the job itselfThe name given to these dissatisfies was ‘hygiene factors’.This was because fulfilling them would prevent dissatisfaction, rather than cause motivation. ‘Careful hygiene prevents disease; careful hygiene factors prevent job dissatisfaction.
23 ActivityTask 1: Note the key points of Maslow, McGregor and Herzberg. Pg 209 Task 2: Explain how the use each theorist would effect a business. Task 3: Evaluate the importance of motivation and motivation theoriesKey wordsContentAnalysisEvaluation23
28 Match the job design, adv, disadv DefinitionAdvantages to the businessDisadvantages to the businessjob enlargementmovement between different jobs. Leads to multi-skilling. The ability to carry out several different jobs.Multi-skilling benefits the employer because staff shortages can be covered more easily.There will be training costs involved and employees may expect more payjob rotationIncreasing the depth of the job by increasing the amount of discretion and authority for decision making the job holder has.Fewer problems with boredom, so mistakes are less likely, which reduces costs.High training costs: it may be difficult for the employee to balance new responsibilities with their existing work load.job enrichmentincluding a wider variety of tasks within a job description. This is sometimes called horizontal loading and involves giving people more jobs to do that required the same level of skill.It allows employees to test and develop their managerial skills, which lead to an increase in internal recruitment opportunities.This system can be very complicated to organise, and the skill level achieved by an employee may not be the same for each job, causing variations in quality
29 Advantages to the business Disadvantages to the business AnswersJob designDefinitionAdvantages to the businessDisadvantages to the businessjob enlargementincluding a wider variety of tasks within a job description. This is sometimes called horizontal loading and involves giving people more jobs to do that required the same level of skill.Fewer problems with boredom, so mistakes are less likely, which reduces costs.There will be training costs involved and employees may expect more payjob rotationmovement between different jobs. Leads to multi-skilling. The ability to carry out several different jobs.Multi-skilling benefits the employer because staff shortages can be covered more easily.This system can be very complicated to organise, and the skill level achieved by an employee may not be the same for each job, causing variations in qualityjob enrichmentIncreasing the depth of the job by increasing the amount of discretion and authority for decision making the job holder has.It allows employees to test and develop their managerial skills, which lead to an increase in internal recruitment opportunities.High training costs: it may be difficult for the employee to balance new responsibilities with their existing work load.
30 ActivityTask 1: Spider diagram how could a business use empowerment Task 2: Explain how the use of empowerment would effect a business Task 3: Evaluate the extent to which empowering employees can benefit a businessKey wordsContentAnalysisEvaluation30
31 Why is motivation Important? In business all staff are motivated by their own needs.One method doesn’t work for everyone.Motivation is not static. People’s lives and priorities change.(so do their needs and the motivation)Motivation is important because it affects the efficiency of a business both in terms of quantity and quality.
32 Why is motivation Important? AnalysisProductivityQualityAbsenteeismRetentionIndustrial relationsPublic relations