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Presentation on theme: "MOTIVATION."— Presentation transcript:



3 Defined as the psychological forces within a person that : determine
1 Intensity The effort of how hard people work 2 Direction Of business in an Organization 3 Persistence How long one can maintain the effort. Intrinsic motivation: Behavior performed for it’s own sake. : Motivation comes from perform the work Extrinsic Motivation: Behavior performed to acquire rewards. Motivation source is the consequence of an action

4 OUTCOMES & INPUTS Regardless of the source of motivation, people seek outcomes Outcome: Any thing a person gets from a job Organizations hire workers to obtain inputs Inputs Any thing a person contributes to his job eg. Skills. Knowledge , work-behavior Manager thus use outcomes to motivate workers to provide inputs

5 Motivation Equation Inputs from Organization Members— Performance
Time, Effort, Skills, Education, knowledge, Work-Behavior Performance Contribute to Organizational Efficiency, Effectiveness & Attain goals Outcomes received by members. Job security, Benefits Vacations

6 Need Theory People are motivated to obtain outcomes at work to satisfy their needs. A need is a requirement for survival To motivate a person --- Managers must determine what needs workers want satisfied --- Ensure that a person receives the outcomes when performing well. There are several needs theories: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Alderfer’s ERG

7 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
6-1 E X H I B I T

8 Hierarchy of Needs Examples Self Actualization Esteem Belongingness
Need Level Description Examples Self Actualization Realize one’s full potential Use abilities to the fullest Esteem Feel good about ones self Promotions & Recognitions Belongingness Social interaction, love Interpersonal relation Safety Security, Stability Job security, health, insurance Physiological Food, shelter etc. Basic pay levels

9 Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)

10 Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)

11 Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers
Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers 6-3 E X H I B I T

12 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction
Presence Absence 6-4 E X H I B I T

13 ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer)
Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development.

14 Self -developmentCreative work Work continually improves skills
Alderfer’s ERG Growth Self -developmentCreative work Work continually improves skills Relatedness Interpersonal relations, feelings Good relations, Feed back Existence Food, shelter etc Basic pay level to buy items Highest lowest

15 Motivation – Hygiene Theory
Focuses on outcomes that can lead to high motivation, job satisfaction & those that can prevent dissatisfaction. Motivator needs Related to nature of the work & how challenging it is -- Outcomes are autonomy, responsibility , interesting work Hygiene Needs Relate to the physical and psychological context of the work -- Refers to a good work environment, pay , job security -- When hygiene not met , workers are dissatisfied

16 David McClelland’s Theory of Needs
nAch nPow nAff

17 Matching Achievers and Jobs
6-5 E X H I B I T

18 Cognitive Evaluation Theory

19 Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)

20 Reinforcement Theory (Carrot & stick theory)
Concepts: Behavior is environmentally caused. Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.

21 Equity theory Distributive Justice (perceived fairness of outcome)
Procedural Justice (Perceived fairness of process Used to determine outcome) Interactional Justice (Perceived degree to which one is Treated with dignity & respect) Organizational Justice (Overall perception of what is fair in the Workplace)

22 Expectancy Theory 6-8 E X H I B I T

23 Motivation - Applications
1)Motivating by Job Design: The Job characteristics model Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback How can Jobs be redesigned? Job rotation Job enlargement Job enrichment

24 Alternative Work Arrangements Flexi time Job sharing Telecommuting
Ability & Opportunity 2) Employee involvement Examples: - Participative Management - Representative Participation - Quality Circles

25 3) Using Rewards to Motivate Employees
What to Pay How to Pay: - Piece - Rate Pay - Merit - Based pay - Bonuses - Skill – Based Pay - Profit-Sharing Plans - Gain sharing - Employee Stock ownership Plans Flexible Benefits Intrinsic Rewards

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