Presentation on theme: "MOTIVATION. AGENDA Admin stuff Class quiz – each of the points on checklist H/w check (pg 158, qs 1, 2 & 4) Recap of employee/er expectations (depending."— Presentation transcript:
AGENDA Admin stuff Class quiz – each of the points on checklist H/w check (pg 158, qs 1, 2 & 4) Recap of employee/er expectations (depending on quiz results) Motivational Theories
REMINDERS: Our first SAC will be on the Wednesday of week 3 (1 August). General HRM and Motivational Theories will be covered (first page of checklist). A practice SAC will be posted on the wiki on Friday – get it back to me by 3pm Sunday and I’ll have feedback for you on Monday arvo (after school). Otherwise, get it to me by 3pm Monday and I’ll give you feedback on Tuesday Holiday homework - Jake and Alexis.
LEARNING INTENTIONS Students will be able to: Explain the motivational theories of Maslow, Herzberg & Locke Compare & contrast these theories Explain how these theories can be implemented in a workplace, identifying specific examples
Maslow believed that people progressed through stages of needs. The higher needs cannot be satisfied until those lower needs are met. The five needs are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. MASLOW
Maslow believed that people progressed through stages of needs. The higher needs cannot be satisfied until those lower needs are met. The five needs are: 1. Physiological – water & food 2. Safety & security 3. Belonging – feeling part of a wider group or community 4. Esteem – both of others and yourself (self-esteem) 5. Self-actualisation – a sense of purpose & achieving one’s potential MASLOW
Hertzberg asserted that needs could be divided into two groups: maintenance (‘hygiene’) needs and motivation needs. 1. Maintenance ‘hygiene’ needs: must be met to avoid dissatisfaction – attaining a ‘neutral’ state. 2. Motivation needs: must be met to achieve satisfaction. HERZBERG’S 2 FACTOR THEORY
Locke emphasised the importance of goal setting in motivating employees. Employees are set goals constantly – sometimes by management and some self imposed. By setting goals that are specific and challenging, HRM may be able to better motivate them. This requires sound knowledge of the employee’s skills and personal characteristics so that appropriate goals can be set. LOCKE’S GOAL SETTING THEORY
Two main factors in Locke’s theory of goal setting: 1. Goal difficulty: the more challenging the goal, to a certain extent, motivation will increase. 2. Goal specificity: having a clearly defined goal increases the probability of achieving it. LOCKE’S GOAL SETTING THEORY
APPLYING THE THEORIES Motivation Theory Application Maslow Modern HRM could use aspects of Maslow when trying to motivate workers. They need to be aware that employees will be at different stages, therefore a range of strategies might need to be applied. Some workers might be at the ‘Belonging Stage’, so a team building weekend might work really well with them. Others may be at the ‘Esteem stage’, so they will respond well to recognition of their achievements. Herzberg Maintenance Providing effective leadership and supervision; organisational policies and procedures; salary; interpersonal relationships with colleagues; working conditions (e.g. OHS, equal opportunity) Motivational Key ‘motivators’ include: achievement; responsibility; recognition; work (the job itself); advancement (clear career path and promotional opportunities). Locke Goal setting theory states that goals should be clear and explicit, and that if an individual participates in selecting their own workplace goals, they will have a higher commitment to achieving them.
MOTIVATIONAL TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS Intrinsic & extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic is: Money – pay and bonuses Career paths – including promotion Recognition of good work Encouragement and feedback Incentives Team Building sessions
COMPARING THE THEORIES MaslowHerzbergLocke Basis Hierarchy of needs and prioritising their satisfaction Means of preventing dissatisfaction and satisfaction dealt States that goals are the most important factors affecting the motivation and behavior of employees. Nature of theory Maslow's theory is rather simple and descriptive. The theory is based long experience about human needs. Hertzberg's theory is more prescriptive. It suggests the motivating factors which can be used effectively. This theory is based on actual information collected by Hertzberg by interviewing 200 engineers and accountants. Locke’s Goal Setting is a ‘Process’ theory that deal with the “process” of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs. The others two theories are more ‘content’ based and look at “what” motivates people. Application Maslow's theory is most popular and widely cited theory of motivation and has wide applicability. It is mostly applicable to poor and developing countries where money is still a big motivating factor. Herzberg's theory is an extension of Maslow's theory of motivation. Its applicability is narrow. It is applicable to rich and developed countries where money is less important motivating factor. Specific goals often involve quantitative targets for improvement in a behavior of interest. Research indicates that specific performance goals are much more effective than those in which a person is told to "do your best." Motivators According to Maslow's model, any need can act as motivator provided it is not satisfied or relatively less satisfied. In the dual factor model of Hertzberg, hygiene factors (lower level needs) do not act as motivators. Only the higher order needs (achievement, recognition, challenging work) act as motivators. Using specific & challenging goals