Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22: Developing and retaining an effective workforce"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 22: Developing and retaining an effective workforce Motivating Employees
2 Theories of Motivation: Scientific Management and F.W. Taylor Considered money to be the main factor that motivated workers, so he emphasised the benefits of piecework, where workers are paid according to how much they produce.Extreme division of labour – where a job is broken down into small, repetitive tasks, each of which can be done at speed and with little training (Specialisation)Tight management control – which ensures that workers concentrate on their jobs and follow the correct processes.**Saw humans as machines with financial needs**
3 Theories of Motivation: Elton Mayo and the Hawthorne Effect Emphasised the importance of human relations in the workplace and suggested:Recognition, belonging and security are more important in motivating employees than simply money and working conditionsWork is a group-based activity and employees should be seen as members of a groupManagers need to pay attention to individuals’ social needs and the influence of the informal groups to which they belongManagers must communicate with informal groups, ensuring that their goals are in tune with those of the organisationIncreases of output are due to greater communication and improved relations in informal groups
4 Motivation Theories: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs He said the people have 5 types of needs that they try to satisfy.Once the first set of needs has been satisfied, it no longer works as a motivator so people move on to the next set of needs.Self-Actualisation NeedsEsteem NeedsSocial NeedsSafety Needs Basic NeedsThe satisfaction gain from realising personal ambition or personal targetsPeople need to feel they belong, they want to be part of a group + enjoy friendshipFood, clothing and shelter – the basic necessities of lifePeople need to feel respected by others for their abilities.People need to be sure + feel secure that they can continue to survive.
5 Motivation Theories: Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction Motivators (factors that motivate and give job satisfaction):A sense of achievementRecognition for effort and achievementThe nature of the work itselfResponsibilityPromotion and improvement opportunitiesHygiene Factors (can reduce job dissatisfaction):Company policy and administration, which includes paperworkSupervision (especially if workers feel that they are over-supervisedPayInterpersonal relations, especially with supervisors and peersWorking conditions
6 Using financial methods to motivate employees Time ratesPieceworkPerformance-related payProfit sharingShare ownership and share optionsFringe benefits
7 Non-financial methods of motivating employees Job enrichment (a means of giving employees greater responsibility and offering them challenges that allow them to utilise their skills fully)Job enlargement (increasing the scope of a job, either by job enrichment or by job rotation)Empowering employeesWorking in teams