Presentation on theme: "The Muslim World 600 – 1258 AD The Rise of Islam"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Muslim World 600 – 1258 AD 10. 1 The Rise of Islam The Crescent Moon: Symbol of Islam based on the Islamic lunar calendar = The Hijrah Calendar, which began on 622 as year 1 symbolizing the flight from Mecca to Medina. The primary purpose of the Calendar is to determine holidays in festivals in the Islamic year.The Rise of Islam
2 “Submission to the will of Allah” Muslims are “those who submit” What is Islam?“Submission to the will of Allah”Muslims are “those who submit”2nd largest religion: 1.6 Billion worldwideFasting Growing religionTraces its roots to Abraham; it is the conclusion of Judaism & ChristianityNot all Muslims are Arabs and Not all Arabs are Muslims. Allah is the same God of Christianity & Judaism just by a different name. According to Muslims, Adam was the first Muslim and Islam has always existed, but somewhere along the way Jews and Christians lost their way so to speak and corrupted their religion with idols and divine messengers.
3 Arabian Peninsula Crossroads of 3 continents Mostly desert with few OasesNomadic Bedouin tribes not unitedorganized into clansfought over limited resourcesThe Arabs were religiously diverse. Many Jewish and Christian Arab tribes were among them as well as various pagan tribes.
5 Mecca City of trade & pilgrimage Site of the Ka’aba: originally a shrine to Abraham, by 600 AD Arab clans filled it with pagan idolsBirthplace of the Prophet MuhammadMeccaMuslims as well as Jews trace their ethnic lineage to Abraham through his son Ismael. The Jews through Isaac. According to Islamic belief, God ordained a place of worship on Earth to reflect a house in heaven. Muslims believe that Adam, the first man, was the first to build such a place of worship. According to the Qur'an, the Ka'ba that stands today was built by the prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Ismail (Ishmael). It's said that when Abraham and Ishmael were building the Ka'aba, the stone was delivered to them by an angel from heaven. That story would suggest that the Black Stone is a meteorite. Before Muhammad, the Ka’aba was surrounded by 360 idols, and every Arab house had its god. Arabs also believed in djinn (subtle beings). Where the word Genie comes from.
7 Muhammad 570-632 AD Prophet of Islam; Not divine! Orphaned as child; raised by uncle; became a merchantReceived 1st revelations in 610 AD while meditating in a cave near Mecca.Muhammad’s name in traditional Arabic. “There is no God but the one God, Allah” Message given to Muhammad by the Arch Angel Gabriel.
8 Beliefs of Islam There is only ONE GOD (Allah) Same God of Christians & JewsProphets receive revelations, but are not divineMuhammad is the last of the prophetsAfterlife, Heaven, Hell, Last JudgmentAll are equal before God & responsible for one’s actions
9 Muhammad Tries to unify Mecca under Islam Began preaching 613 ADGained few-followersMeccans feared losing independence, traditions, & trade = forced Muhammad to fleeMuhammad depicted with white veil over face. Not supposed to depict religious images = only God can create life, all else is idol worship.
10 The Hijrah (Flight to Yathrib) 622 AD Turning point in Muhammad’s lifeMarks Year #1 on the Islamic CalendarMuhammad became leader, converted manyCity renamed “Medina”Medina means the city of the Prophet
11 Muhammad’s Victory Bedouins joined Muhammad in war against Mecca 630 AD: Muhammad & 10,000 Muslims forced Mecca to surrender.Muhammad smashed the idols in the Ka’aba, and united Arabia under IslamMuslims smash the idols at the Ka’aba
12 Orange: Islam at Death of Muhammad Muhammad Died 632 AD
13 Sources of Authority The Qur’an: Muhammad’s revelations & teachings The Sunna: Muhammad’s life exampleThe Shari’a: body of Islamic lawsArabic became the only excepted language for the Qur’an. Caused an Arab aristocracy to develop in colonies where there lived Persians, Greeks, North Africans…
15 The Five Pillars of Islam 5 Duties to Demonstrate Submission to the Will of GodConfession of Faith in one GodPrayer 5 Times a DayGive Alms to the PoorFasting during month of RamadanPilgrimage to Mecca