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10.1 – The Rise of Islam The religion of Islam unites the Muslim World religiously AND politically.

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Presentation on theme: "10.1 – The Rise of Islam The religion of Islam unites the Muslim World religiously AND politically."— Presentation transcript:

1 10.1 – The Rise of Islam The religion of Islam unites the Muslim World religiously AND politically.

2 Arabia before Muhammad
Bedouins – Nomadic tribesmen who live in the deserts. Take pride in ability to survive in harsh conditions and fight off invaders. Band together to form armies and eventually large farming communities.

3 Early 600s – Bedouins begin to trade with neighboring empires.
Spices, incense, silk, and Eastern products from along the old Royal Road. Mecca – major stop on the trade route in Western Arabia. Ka’aba – house of worship in Mecca that attracts pilgrims to worship.

4 Ka’aba – worshipping site for pilgrims

5 Rise of Islam Arab lands are a mixture of religious peoples who believe in monotheism (called hanifs). Muhammad born into a powerful clan living in Mecca – 570. Grows up to become a wealthy businessman but his main interest is religion. Muhammad is called to cave where he is spoken to by Gabriel. Convinced that this is Allah (God) speaking to him through Gabriel, thus making Muhammad a prophet.

6 Islam: Muhammad’s Religion
Muhammad teaches that Allah is the ONE and ONLY god and that all other religions must be abandoned for Islam. Islam – peace Islam – peace through submission to Allah Muslim – One who has submitted

7 Muhammad Spreads Islam
Muhammad preaches in Mecca – 613 A.D. Unsuccessful – His teachings conflict with the traditional Arab gods. Meccans feel Islam will cause pilgrimages to decline. Muhammad and his followers are stoned in the streets.

8 Hijrah 622 – Muhammad leaves Mecca for Yathrib (200 miles north)
Success! Muhammad converts many and Yathrib is renamed Medina (“city of the Prophet”)

9 Islam spreads… by force
The Prophet becomes a general Under Muhammad’s leadership, Islam becomes a community. Muhammad is: Religious leader Political leader Military leader

10 Hostilities between Mecca and Medina
Many Bedouin tribes convert to Islam and join Muhammad 630 – Muhammad marches on Mecca with 10,000 Mecca surrenders Muhammad goes to Ka’aba and declares: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished”

11 Muslims worshipping today

12 Muhammad becomes “immortal”
Meccans pledge loyalty to Muhammad thus becoming part of the umma – Muslim religious community. Muhammad dies two years later Ascends to heaven from the ancient Hebrew rock where Abraham was set to sacrifice Isaac. Muslims built The Dome of the Rock as the first Islamic monument in 691 A.D.

13 The Dome of the Rock

14 Basics of the Islamic faith
Holy Book: Koran or Qur’an The Five Pillars: 1 – Faith 2 – Prayer 3 – Alms 4 – Fasting 5 – Pilgrimage The Five Pillars – duties that demonstrate a Muslim’s submission to the will of Allah.

15 A Way of Life Muslims do not separate their personal life from their religious life. Muslims have a personal relationship with Allah (God), they are expected to worship him directly BUT Islam does have the ulama, which are religious officials who interpret the Koran and law.

16 The Koran + The Sunna = Shari’a
The Koran is the story of Muhammad’s life and teachings. The Sunna – Muhammad’s model for proper living. The Koran + The Sunna = Shari’a Shari’a – The system of law that regulates family life, moral conduct, and the business and community life of all Muslims.

17 Shari’a Islam does not separate religious life from other aspects like we do (criminal, civil, law, education) Islam brings unity to Muslims through the shari’a. The religion dominates all parts of one’s life.

18 Islam and Judaism/Christianity
To Muslims, Allah is the same God that is worshipped in Judaism & Christianity. But, Jesus is a Prophet, not the Son of God Koran is the word of God (as revealed to Muhammad) The Final Step Step 1 – Judaism, Abraham, the Torah Step 2 – Jesus, Gospels Step 3 – Muhammad, Koran = Final Perfection

19 Pilgrimages to Mecca today

20 Ka’aba interior

21 Walk around 7 times, no break

22 Muslim Prayer – 5 times daily

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