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The Cell Cells are the basic unit of living things

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Presentation on theme: "The Cell Cells are the basic unit of living things"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cell Cells are the basic unit of living things

2 Leeuwenhoek 1674 First to describe cells as seen through a simple microscope

3 Robert Hooke In 1665, Robert Hooke viewed cork samples. He
observed hollow boxes which he called cells.

4 In the 1830’s Schleiden and Schwann studied plant and animal cells.

5 Schleiden All plants are made of cells.

6 Schwann All animals are made of cells.

7 Cell Theory 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells.

8 Cell Theory 2. The cell is the basic unit of organization for organisms.

9 Cell Theory 3. All cells come from pre-existing cells.

10 BASIC CELL TYPES Prokaryote Eukaryote

11 Prokaryote Primitive cells without organelles.
Lacks internal structures surrounded by membranes Lacks a true nucleus DNA is contained in the nucleoid Most are single-celled organisms

12 Eukaryote Has membrane bound structures Has a true nucleus
Allows cells parts to specialize in particular functions Can be unicellular or multicellular Membrane-bound structures are called organelles Allows different chemical reactions to take place

13 Cell Structures and Functions

14 Plasma Membrane AKA: cell membrane Location: Surrounds the cell
Function: boundary between cell and environment Controls what goes into and out of the cell.

15 Cell Wall Location: surrounds the plasma membrane in plant cells
Function: support

16 Nucleus Location: center of the cell Function: manage cell functions

17 Nuclear Envelope Location: surround the nucleus
Function: controls what goes into and out of the nucleus

18 DNA Location: in the nucleus, on the chromosomes
Function: produce the codes for protein synthesis

19 Chromatin Location: in the nucleus, made from DNA
Function: form chromosomes during cell reproduction

20 Nucleolus Location: in the nucleus Function: produce ribosomes

21 Ribosomes Location: nucleolus, endoplasmic reticulum, cytoplasm
Function: assembles enzymes and proteins for protein synthesis

22 Cytoplasm Location: from the nuclear envelope to the cell membrane, surrounding the organelles Function: a clear, jelly-like fluid that holds the organelles in place

23 Endoplasmic Reticulum
Location: within the cytoplasm Function: site of lipid synthesis and cell’s delivery system

24 Golgi Apparatus Location: within the cytoplasm
Function: Receives and distributes the new proteins from the ER and distributes substances from the vesicles

25 Vacuole Location: within the cytoplasm One large vacuole in plants
Function: temporary storage of material (food, water, waste, enzymes) One large vacuole in plants Many small vacuoles in animals

26 Lysosomes Location: within the cytoplasm (animals only)
Function: digest enzymes, worn out or extra cell parts, food, virus/bacteria

27 Mitochondria AKA: powerhouse Location: within cytoplasm
Function: breaks down food to release energy

28 Chloroplasts Location: within cytoplasm (plants only)
Function: change light energy into usable chemical energy

29 Chlorophyll: green pigment that gives plants their color and traps light Belongs to a group of plant organelles called plastids; which are used for storage. They store starches (carbs), lipids, and pigments.

30 Cytoskeleton Location: Within the cytoplasm
Function: provides support for organelles

31 Composed of microtubules and microfilaments microtubules: thin hollow cylinders made of protein microfilaments: solid protein fibers

32 Cilia Location: outside of the cell, short, hair-like
Function: move the cell

33 Flagella Location: outside the cell, long, whip-like
Function: move the cell

34 Centriole Location: in the cytoplasm (animal cells only)
Function: aid in cell division

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