Gorodn Porter UMPI1 1 Cooperative Learning Facilitating Learning by Diverse Learners in Regular Classrooms Adapted from the work of Gordon Porter Unit.
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Gorodn Porter UMPI1 1 Cooperative Learning Facilitating Learning by Diverse Learners in Regular Classrooms Adapted from the work of Gordon Porter Unit 2: Cooperative Learning
Gorodn Porter UMPI2 2 Learning Approaches Learning Alone Learning With Others Competing With Others
Gorodn Porter UMPI3 3 Critical Components of Cooperative Learning 1. Positive interdependence 2. Individual accountability 3. Cooperative skills 4. Face-to-face interaction 5. Group reflection and goal setting
Gorodn Porter UMPI4 4 Positive Interdependence Work together to accomplish a shared goal coordination of individual actions dialogue planning decision making negotiation Each member plays a part - tasks may vary WE - thinking not ME - thinking
Gorodn Porter UMPI5 5 Individual accountability Individuals assume responsibility for achieving group goals Each does their share of the work Each member must accomplish the appropriate learning Members make certain learning occurs by checking each other & quizzing and tutoring each other as needed.
Gorodn Porter UMPI6 6 Cooperative skills Social skills in groups Listening to one another Sharing ideas Discuss what needs to be done Discuss how to do it Take turns Respect others need for physical space
Gorodn Porter UMPI7 7 Face-to-Face Interaction Interaction among group members Together - group members discuss ideas make decisions engage in negotiations Physical proximity required Eye-to-eye Knee- to- knee
Gorodn Porter UMPI8 8 Group Reflection and Goal Setting How well are they achieving the group goal? How well do they function as a team? Successes Areas for improvement Explore group problems and seek solutions Set new goals Seek feedback from others including the teacher
Gorodn Porter UMPI9 9 Comparing Cooperative Learning Groups and Traditional Groups Positive interdependence Individual accountability Cooperative skill instruction Concern for peer learning No positive interdependence No individual accountability No cooperative skill instruction Little concern for peer learning
Gorodn Porter UMPI10 Gorodn Porter UMPI10 Comparing Cooperative Learning Groups and Traditional Groups Heterogeneous groups Teacher selected groups Student reflection and goal setting Teacher observation and feedback Equal opportunity for success Homogeneous groups Student selected groups No student reflection and goal setting No teacher observation and feedback Uniform standard for success
Gorodn Porter UMPI11 Gorodn Porter UMPI11 Examples of group goals One product - a report, a poster Finding a solution to a problem Reaching consensus on an issue Achieving a group grade - averaging the grades in the group or setting a grade and ensuring that all members achieve it.
Gorodn Porter UMPI12 Gorodn Porter UMPI12 Cooperative structures Three-Step Interview Numbered Heads Together Think-Pair-Share Problem solving “merry-go round” Jigsaw II - Base Group and Expert Group
Gorodn Porter UMPI14 Gorodn Porter UMPI14 Issues - Cooperative learning groups Size of group Selection of the group Time allotted for group work Establishing roles of group members Evaluating learning of individuals Keeping the process dynamic
Gorodn Porter UMPI15 Gorodn Porter UMPI15 Multi-level Instruction An Instructional Model to Meet Diverse Student Needs
Gorodn Porter UMPI16 Gorodn Porter UMPI16 An Instructional Model to Accommodate Diverse Learners in Regular Classrooms Four (4) step process: 1. 1.Establish Goal 2. 2.Method of Teacher Presentation 3. 3.Method of Student Practice 4. 4.Method of Evaluation
Gorodn Porter UMPI17 Gorodn Porter UMPI17 Multi-level Instruction Assumes inclusion of all students The teacher plans for all students within one lesson The teacher is able to weave individual goals into the classroom curriculum and through instructional strategies. The necessity for separate programs is decreased.
Gorodn Porter UMPI18 Gorodn Porter UMPI18 Multi-level Instruction 4 Steps 1.Identify the underlying concepts of the lesson or unit 2.Determine method of teacher presentation how concepts will be presented 3.Determine method of student practice 4.Determine method of student evaluation
Gorodn Porter UMPI19 Gorodn Porter UMPI19 Key Concepts 1.Principle of Partial Participation 2.Use of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Domains 3.Use of Howard Gardner’s “Model of Multiple Intelligences”
Gorodn Porter UMPI20 Gorodn Porter UMPI20 Partial Participation Diminishes readiness concept ( This student is not ready for my class!) Doing part of the task has value (We know this is true for each of us!) Emphasizes sense of community (Being included matters to all of us) One lesson for all (Teachers can only do so much in one time period!)
Gorodn Porter UMPI21 Other Instructional Strategies that Support Inclusion Cooperative learning Individualized learning modules Activity based learning Peer tutoring for all students