Presentation on theme: "Instructional Strategies Instructional strategies – refer to the arrangement of the teacher, learner, and environment Many different types – we will explore."— Presentation transcript:
Instructional Strategies Instructional strategies – refer to the arrangement of the teacher, learner, and environment Many different types – we will explore only two
Station Teaching Students are in small groups and rotate from learning center to learning center effectively and efficiently. Provides students with a variety of drills and tasks Works best when equipment or space is limited Provides students with opportunities to practice and apply the same skill to different situations – crucial to mastering open skills
Station Teaching (Cont.) Set up different activities around the gymnasium Divide class into equal number of groups and assign to a different starting station Place a task card describing what you want them to do Make sure each station requires about the same amount of time to complete.
Station Teaching (Cont.) Have students complete a data sheet at each station. It is best to start with only 3-4 stations and then add more -this will minimize teacher talk Can use this with a variety of teaching styles – reciprocal, self-check, and inclusion Keep tasks fairly simple
Cooperative Learning Research shows that cooperative learning results in greater achievement gains, improved cross-cultural friendships, increased social skills, enhanced self- esteem, greater interdependence (teamwork), increased cognitive and affective abilities, and an improved classroom climate.
Cooperative Learning (Cont.) True cooperative learning requires: 1.Formation of heterogeneous teams 2.Establishment of positive interdependence and individual accountability 3.Opportunity for team members to get acquainted with one another and establish a team identity. 4.Use of an established structure 5.Opportunity to debrief the situation
1. Form Heterogeneous Groups Teams should have a balance of gender, ethnicity, ability, etc. You can randomly assign and then adjust for the above or you can rank students by ability and then assign one from the top with one from the bottom, etc. Group sizes of 4-6 are about right, but partners can work too.
Establish positive interdependence and individual accountability Set up one task to be accomplished by each group. Make sure it can be completed ONLY if the students cooperate Establish individual accountability making sure each member has a specific task, role, or resource ensuring that each must contribute to the successful completion of the task
3. Promote Team Building Students need time to get to know one another and develop trust before being presented with a task Groups go through 4 stages: –Forming –Storming –Norming –Performing
4. Select a Structure There are many – we will limit to four 1)Think-pair-share: Students work with partners. You pose a question and give students time to think about their answer. After thinking, they share their responses with their partners. Partners question each other to help refine the answer
Structure for Cooperative Learning (Cont.) 2. Numbered Heads: Students work in partners You pose a question and they solve it together – asking each other questions to make sure their answer is appropriate
Structure for Cooperative Learning (Cont.) 3. STAD (student teams achievement divisions) Students assigned to groups of four You present the lesson and supply instructional materials, then students work to make sure everyone in their group masters the information Reciprocal style helps here
Structure for Cooperative Learning (Cont.) 4. Jigsaw: Students assigned to home teams of 4-6 members Each member of the home team selects a different piece of material to learn. Have students from different teams who have similar pieces of information, forms expert groups to discuss their information and develop a presentation for their home teams. No more than 4-6 in expert groups Have students return to home groups to share information
5. Be Sure to Debrief Ask students: –Was the task completed? If not, why? –How did it feel to have someone accept your suggestions? –How did it feel to have someone complement you? –What can you do next time to make your group work more successfully? –What learning can you take from their experience to use in the future? –What were some encouraging things you saw or heard?
Working with Limited-English Proficient Students LEP = limited English Proficient SDAIE = specially designed academic instruction in English Four methods for working with LEP students: 1. create a supportive learning environment 2.Use a variety of instructional strategies, including cooperative learning 3.Make sure information is comprehensible to students 4.Include a technique called total physical response
1. Supportive Environment Ask them to share their experiences Incorporate some of their background into the class Establish consistent routines so they know what is happening next Avoid forcing them to speak (takes 6 mo. To a year at least) When they do speak, correct their errors only through verbal mirroring
2. Variety of Strategies, Including Cooperative Learning All of your students learn in unique ways – including the LEP students Technology is helpful Nice to have a bi-lingual student in group with LEP
3. Comprehensible Input Use simple terms Reinforce key concepts over and over again Check often for student understanding Slow down speech pattern Pause frequently Enunciate clearly Emphasize key words of phrases Keep information in context
3. Comprehensible Input (Cont.) Use visual aids, gestures, organizers, and other real objects Demonstrate concepts Simplify information Expand on student’s ideas by asking additional questions Provide definitions Make comparisons Provide lots of examples Avoid idioms Summarize often Increase wait time
4. Total Physical Response There is a definite link between physical activity and language acquisition. TPR = demonstrate something physically and have the student respond with a physical movement
Summary You will work with 20 – 60 different learning styles during one instructional period Make sure learning is hands-on, relevant, and student centered.