Presentation on theme: "Claim, Evidence, and Warrant Logos, Pathos, Ethos"— Presentation transcript:
1 Claim, Evidence, and Warrant Logos, Pathos, Ethos The ArgumentClaim, Evidence, and WarrantLogos, Pathos, Ethos
2 ClaimA claim is a single sentence that communicates both your topic and your point of view.A claim is not a title: Homes and schools (title) vs. Parents ought to participate more in the education of their children (good claim).A claim is not an announcement of the subject: My subject is the incompetence of the Supreme Court.A claim is not a statement of absolute fact: Jane Austen is the author of Pride and Prejudice.A claim is not the whole essay: A claim is your main idea/refutation/problem-solution expressed in a single sentence or a combination of sentences.
3 EvidenceUse evidence (or data) to support your claim. Like a lawyer presenting evidence to a jury, you must support your claim with facts; an unsupported claim is merely an assertion.Facts or statistics: objectively determined data about your topic. (Note: “objective” may be open to debate.)Expert opinion: Learned opinion, theory, and analysis that you should cite frequently, both to support your argument and to disagree with. Sources must be quoted, paraphrased, and cited appropriately.Primary research: an explanation and discussion of your own research findings and how they relate to your topic.Personal anecdotes: the most difficult kind of data to use well because doing so requires a persuasive argument that your own experience is relevant and can be objectively grasped by your reader. Personal experience can, however, bring an argument to life.
4 WarrantThe warrant interprets the data and shows how it supports your claim. In other words, the warrant explains why and how the data proves the claim. In trials, lawyers for opposing sides often agree on the data but hotly dispute the warrants. Claim: Any American can grow up to be president. Data: Bill Clinton came from a poor town in a poor state to be president. Warrant:Claim: Hybrid cars are an effective strategy to fight pollution.Data: Driving a private car is a typical citizen's most air polluting activity.Warrant :
9 EthosBefore you can convince an audience to accept anything you say, they have to accept you as credible.There are many aspects to building your credibility:Does the audience respect you?Does the audience believe you are of good character?Does the audience believe you are generally trustworthy?Does the audience believe you are an authority on this topic?Keep in mind that it isn’t enough for you to know that you are a credible source. (This isn’t about your confidence, experience, or expertise.) Your audience must know this. Ethos is your level of credibility as perceived by your audience.
10 PathosPathos is the quality of a persuasive presentation which appeals to the emotions of the audience.Do your words evoke feelings of … love? … sympathy? … fear?Do your visuals evoke feelings of compassion? … envy?Does your characterization of the competition evoke feelings of hate? contempt?Emotional connection can be created in many ways, perhaps most notably by stories. The goal of a story, anecdote, analogy, simile, and metaphor is often to link an aspect of our primary message with a triggered emotional response from the audience.
11 Logos Logos is synonymous with a logical argument. Does your message make sense?Is your message based on facts, statistics, and evidence?Will your call-to-action lead to the desired outcome that you promise?