Presentation on theme: "The Art of Argumentation"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Art of Argumentation Ethos, Pathos, LogosThe Art of Argumentation
2 Initial Questions to Ask Yourself When Reading an Argument: When analyzing someone else’s argument or constructing your own, always ask yourself these questions:Who is the speaker?Who is the speaker or author’s intended audience?How do I know who the audience is?How has the audience influenced the speaker or author’s choice of argumentative strategies?
3 Ask yourself why the author or speaker is using logos? LOGOS – LOGICALLoosely defined, logos refers to the use of logic, reasons, facts, statistics, data, and numbers.Logical appeals are aimed at the mind of the audience, their thinking side.Very often, logos seems tangible and touchable.When a speaker or writer uses logical appeals, he or she will avoid inflammatory language, and the writer will carefully connect its reasons to supporting evidence.Ask yourself why the author or speaker is using logos?Advantages: provides evidence for major decisionsDisadvantages: can demand a high degree of reader attention
4 Here are some, but not all, techniques that are used in this type of appeal: test resultsstandard research findingssurveyseyewitness testimonylogical reasons why your audience should believe you (keep in mind that not all reasons are equally persuasive for all audiences).evidence that proves or explains your reasonsfacts – using information that can be checked by testing, observing firsthand, or reading reference materials to support an opinion.statistics – percentages, numbers, and charts to highlight significant dataexpert opinion – statements by people who are recognized as authorities on the subject.examples – giving examples that support each reasonuse of cause and effect, compare and contrast, and analogy
5 PATHOS – EMOTIONALArguments from the heart are designed to appeal to the audience’s emotions and feelings.Emotions can direct people in powerful ways to think more carefully about what they do.In hearing or reading an argument that is heavy on emotional appeals, ask yourself these questions:How is the speaker or author appealing to the audience’s emotions? Why?Always try to name the emotions being appealed to (love, sympathy, anger, fear, hate, patriotism, compassion) and figure out how the emotion is being created in the audience.
6 Most common emotions appealed to include Emotional appeals are often just examples - ones chosen to awaken specific feelings in an audience.Although frequently abused, the emotional appeal is a legitimate aspect of argument, for speakers and authors want their audience to care about the issues they address.Most common emotions appealed to includeCreativity – desire for recognition by self-expressionAchievement – the need to attain money, fame, or fulfillmentIndependence -- the drive to be unique, to stand out, to be individualConformity – the desire to be includedEndurance – to achieve satisfaction by bearing burdens others could notFear – to resist, avoid, or defeat threats to the self or societyAdvantages: produces immediate results.Disadvantages: limited impact, can backfire, limited factual support
7 Here are some, but not all, techniques that are used in this type of appeal: creativity – may use humor, word play, etc. to invoke positive emotionsmoving stories and anecdotes that prove your opinionmusic, color, artusing emotional language or “catchy words” to appeal to people’ s values or guilty consciences or vivid description.slanting (omitting or not using information that may conflict with or weaken the author’s opinion.)predicting extreme outcomes of events/dire predication in order to create a sense of urgencyspecific examples
8 Ethical appeals depend on the credibility or training of the author. ETHOS – ETHICALEthical appeals depend on the credibility or training of the author.Audiences tend to believe writers who seem honest, wise, and trustworthy.An author or speaker exerts ethical appeal when the language itself impresses the audience that the speaker is a person of intelligence, high moral character and good will. Thus a person wholly unknown to an audience can by words alone win that audience’s trust and approval.Aristotle emphasized the importance of impressing upon the audience that the speaker is a person of good sense and high moral character.Advantages: can be very powerful, if the audience shares standardsDisadvantages: depends on readers who accept similar principles
9 Here are some, but not all, techniques that are used in this type of appeal: Religion – the desire to follow the rules and behavior of one’s faithPatriotism – the urge to place one’s country before personal needsStandards – the desire to be a good citizen, good student, good parent, etc.Humanitarianism – secular appeal to help others, save the environment, help the helpless, etc.
10 Pericles’ Funeral Oration Find one example for ethos, pathos, and logos in Pericles’ Funeral Oration.Quote your exampleIdentify what strategy is being used (e.g. statistic, slanting, expert opinion).Explain what effect the strategy creates for the audience and how effectively the strategy is used.