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ACT Prep - English AVID. English Basics 45 minutes, 75 questions Most English questions follow the same format: A word, phrase or sentence is underlined.

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Presentation on theme: "ACT Prep - English AVID. English Basics 45 minutes, 75 questions Most English questions follow the same format: A word, phrase or sentence is underlined."— Presentation transcript:

1 ACT Prep - English AVID

2 English Basics 45 minutes, 75 questions Most English questions follow the same format: A word, phrase or sentence is underlined You’re given four choices: One to leave alone (NO CHANGE) Three alternatives On this section you are tested on the following: You’re understanding of the conventions of English Punctuation, grammar, sentence structure Rhetorical skills Such as: organizational skills, and style

3 English Basics ACT English Question Breakdown 18 sentence structure 12 grammar and usage 12 strategy 12 style 11 organizational 10 punctuation

4 English Basics To Omit or not to Omit Some questions offer the alternative to “omit” Usually it’s the last answer choice On recent ACT, when “omit” is a choice it has been the correct answer more than 50% of the time DOES NOT mean you should automatically select it

5 English Basics Nonstandard Format Questions Some questions, usually about 10, do not follow the standard format These items pose a question about an excerpt Responses are often yes or no with an explanation Pay attention to the reasoning of the explanation

6 Lesson 1 – Sentence Sense Sentence Sense questions test your understanding of how words are combined to form clear and correct sentences Characteristics of Sentence Sense Questions Clause = group of words that contain both a subject and a verb Two types of clauses: Independent – can stand alone as a sentence Two indep. Clauses cannot be combined with a comma Dependent – cannot stand alone as a sentence

7 Most Common Types of Sentence Sense Questions Sentence Structure Consistency Word Order Lesson 1 – Sentence Sense

8 Sentence Structure Recognize whether a sentence expresses a complete thought or not or if too many thoughts are strung together incorrectly Rules: A sentence must contain an indep. clause An –ING verb cannot stand alone “that” always introduces a depend. clause 4 options for fixing a run-on sentence Separate in to two sentences Join with a semicolon Use a transition word Use a comma by a FANBOYS word (for, and, nor, but, or yet, so) Lesson 1 – Sentence Sense

9 Consistency How non-underlined verbs/pronouns dictate underlined verbs/pronouns Verb Tense Consistency: Verb tense of the underlined portion must relate to the non-underlined verb in the sentence Pronoun Consistency: If the underlined portion includes a pronoun, make the the non-underlined portion includes the noun or pronoun to which it refers Lesson 1 – Sentence Sense

10 Word Order Recognize problematic phrase combinations that lead to illogical statements Think of these questions as a scrambled sentence You’re task is to rearrange it to make logical sense Lesson 1 – Sentence Sense

11 The Trap Door – Steering Clear of Answer Traps Typical Traps: Watch for words that introduce dependent clauses If you see one of the following words make sure the sentence contains an independent clause Lesson 1 – Sentence Sense After Although Because Before If Since That though Unless Whereas Which While Who Whoever

12 Verbs ending in –ING If there is not a helping verb with it, a revision is always needed Underlined Sentences When an entire sentence is underlined: Occasionally NO CHANGE is the correct answer, usually you should pick OMIT because the sentence is usually off topic And the other choices won’t make sense Lesson 1 – Sentence Sense

13 Lesson 1 Practice 1. Identify each question type: Sentence structure (SS) Consistency: Verb or Pronoun (VC or PC) Word Order (WO) 2. Answer the questions

14 Lesson 2 - Punctuation Rules for Commas Separate introductory words from the main part of the sentence Set off words or phrases that are not essential to the sentence Separate two indep. clauses joined by FANBOYS Separate items in a list or series

15 Rules for Semicolon (for the ACT) Joins two closely related independent clauses without a FANBOYS word Ex. Connecting Words That Can Follow a Semicolon: Lesson 2 - Punctuation Furthermore However Moreover Nevertheless Therefore Thus

16 Rules for Colons After an indep. clause to introduce an example, an explanation, a short phrase, a quotation, or a list Lesson 2 - Punctuation

17 Rules for Dashes Not tested frequently Use a dash to indicate a hesitation or break in thought Use a dash before and after the break Can’t a pair a dash with a comma Lesson 2 - Punctuation

18 Rules for Apostrophes Show possession Show that one or more letters are omitted in a contraction Lesson 2 - Punctuation

19 The Trap Doors – Types of Punctuation Answer Traps Comma Trap Answer choices with the most commas tend to be wrong AVOID unnecessary commas Lesson 2 - Punctuation

20 Lesson 2 Practice 1.Identify the punctuation being tested in each question (some questions may test more than one): Commas (Com) Semicolon (SC) Colon (Col) Dashes (D) Apostrophes (Ap) 2.Answer the Questions

21 Lesson 3 – Word Choice Key Rules: Irregular verbs Ex: wrong = begun, correct = had begun Comparatives and Superlatives Adj. that end in –er, comparative form ends in –er Two things being compared Superlative is usually –est when three or more things are being compared Idiomatic Usage Make sure the “sound” correct Adjectives and Adverbs If and adj./adv. Is underlined make sure it modifies a noun/verb

22 Lesson 3 Practice 1.Answer the questions

23 Lesson 4 - Wordiness Wordiness Rule: Eliminate Unnecessary Words Best answer choice forms a direct, concise statement Keep an eye out for: Repetitive words Too many words String of prepositional phrases

24 Lesson 4 Practice 1.Answer the questions

25 Lesson 5 – Writing Strategy and Style Asks you to explicitly consider specific choices an author makes in the writing process Need to understand the passage as a whole 4 categories of writing strategy questions: Whether or not a particular sentence should be added to a passage The effect of deleting a particular phrase or sentence Whether or not the passage fulfills a given purpose or assignment The most effective wording to accomplish a specified purpose

26 Lesson 5 – Writing Strategy and Style Key Rules: Understand what the question is asking Skip a question - know when to skip and come back after reading the passage Use the title of the passage to understand the focus of the passage

27 Lesson 5 Practice 1.Answer the questions

28 Lesson 6 - Organization Organization questions ask you to think about how a passage Most common types of Organization questions Sequence: Determine the correct order of paragraphs Focus: Either paragraph or whole passage …or appropriate sentence for transition Need to look at paragraph before and after Connections: Looking at transition words or phrases Focus on relationships and logical flow

29 Lesson 6 - Organization Key Rules Order of paragraphs Look for introduction, conclusion and body paragraphs Order of sentences Look for key words such as: first, next, finally, etc. Biographical information -> usually chronological order Recognizing Connections Commonly used words and phrases Causes and effect – as a result Contrast – although, but Examples – for instance

30 Lesson 7 – Challenging English Questions Key Rules: 1.Don’t rush when reading questions stems NOT-LEAST-EXCEPT questions Printed in all caps Circle word that appears in all caps Read carefully 2.Two questions answer the easier one first Sentences that contain underlined parts that relate to two different questions, answer the easier one first. Use context clues

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