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State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century

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Presentation on theme: "State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century"— Presentation transcript:

1 State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century
Chapter 15 State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century

2 Timeline

3 Social Crises, War, and Rebellions
Economic Contraction 1630s/40s --  Silver imports from Amer. Recession, esp. Mediterranean  Italy as econ./manuf. power Population Changes  60M - 85M 1st pop  since Black Death But: level off &  by war, famine, plague

4 Cont: Social Crises, War, and Rebellions
The Witchcraft Craze Witchcraft before the sixteenth and seventeenth century Medieval Church: Withcraft = Devil Worship 13C. Inquisition: “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live” Increased prosecutions and executions 16-17C Accusations against witches -- standard elements Torture routine to elicit confessions Reasons for witchcraft prosecutions Religious uncertainty Social conditions --  communalism,  indivdual property & econ. uncertainty Women as primary victims -- widows! Begins to subside by mid-seventeenth century 16-17C = More than 100,000 victims of Witch Hunts

5 The Thirty Years War (1618 – 1648)
Background Religious conflict -- Militant Catholicism vs. Milit. Calvinism Dynastic-nationalist considerations -- Bourbon (Fr.) vs. Hapsburgs (Sp./HRE) Tensions in the Holy Roman Empire Palatine Elector Frederick IV & Protestant Union Bavarian Maximillian & Catholic League Prot. Nobility resist centralization of Hapsburgs Europe’s “most senseless & worthless war”

6 30 Yrs War: Four Phases The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625)
1617: Haps. Ferdinand = King But: Calvinists  accpt Ferd’s Militant Catholicism 1618 Rebellion: nobles defenestrate 2 Haps. Govs. & a Sec’y in Prague Royal Palace -- elect Frederick IV King Ferd. now HRE -- w/ Maximillian & Cath. League defeat Battle of White Mountain Spanish invade Palatinate Fred U.P. (Neth.) Phase I = HRE Victory

7 Cont: 30 Yrs War: Four Phases
The Danish Phase (1625 – 1629)

8 The Franco-Swedish Phase (1635 – 1648) Outcomes
The Swedish Phase (1630 – 1635) The Franco-Swedish Phase (1635 – 1648) Outcomes Peace of Westphalia (1648) Social and economic effects

9 Map 15.1: The Thirty Years’ War

10 A Military Revolution? War and Politics in Seventeenth-Century Europe
New Tactics New Technologies The Cost of a Modern Military

11 Rebellions Peasant Revolts (1590 – 1640)
France, Austria, Hungary, Portugal and Catalonia Russia (1641, 1645 and 1648) Switzerland (1656) Noble Revolts in France (1648 – 1652)

12 Absolute Monarchy in France
Foundations of French Absolutism Cardinal Richelieu (1624 – 1642) Policies and goals Administrative reforms Cardinal Mazarin (1642 – 1661) The Fronde – Noble Revolt

13 The Reign of Louis XIV (1643 – 1715)
Administration of the Government Domination and bribery Religious Policy Edict of Fontainebleau (1685) Financial Issues Jean Baptist Colbert (1619 – 1683) Daily Life at Versailles Purposes of Versailles Court life and etiquette The Wars of Louis XIV Professional army: 100,000 men in peacetime; 400,000 in wartime Four wars between 1667 – 1713 Invasion of Spanish Netherlands (1667) Annexation of Alsace and Lorraine, occupation of Strasbourg (1679) War of the League of Augsburg (1689 – 1697) War of the Spanish Succession (1702 – 1713)

14 Map 15.2: The Wars of Louis XIV

15 The Decline of Spain Bankruptcies in 1596 and in 1607
Philip III (1598 – 1621) Philip IV (1621 – 1665) Gaspar de Guzman and attempts at reform The Thirty Years’ War Expensive military campaigns Civil War The Netherlands lost

16 Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
The German States The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia The Hohenzollern Dynasty Frederick William the Great Elector (1640 – 1688) Army General War Commissariat to levy taxes Frederick III (1688 – 1713) King of Prussia (1701)

17 Map 15.4: The Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia

18 The Emergence of Austria
Habsburgs Leopold I (1658 – 1705) Expands eastward Conflicts with the Turks Siege of Vienna (1683) Multinational Empire

19 Italy: From Spanish to Austrian Rule
Defeat of the French in Italy by Charles V (1530) Spanish Presence (1559 – 1713) Consequences of the War of the Spanish Succession

20 Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power
Ivan IV the Terrible (1533 – 1584) First Tsar Romanov Dynasty (1613 – 1917) Stratified Society Tsar Landed aristocrats Peasants and townspeople

21 The Reign of Peter the Great (1689 – 1725)
Visits the West (1697 – 1698) Reorganizes armed forces Reorganizes central government Divides Russia into provinces Seeks control of the Russian Church Introduces Western Customs Book of Etiquettes Positive Impact of Reforms on Women “Open a window to the West” Attacks Sweden Battle of Narva (1700) Great Northern War (1701 – 1721) Battle of Poltava (1709) Peace of Nystadt (1721) Russia gains control of Estonia, Livonia and Karelia St. Petersburg

22 The Winter Palace – St. Petersburg, Russia

23 Map 15.5: Russia: From Principality to Nation-State

24 The Great Northern States
Denmark Military losses Bloodless revolution of 1660 Sweden Gustavus Adolphus (1611 – 1632) Christina (1633 – 1654) Charles XI (1697 – 1718)

25 The Ottoman Empire and the Limits of Absolutism
Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 – 1566) Attacks against Europe Advances in the Mediterranean Ottomans viewed as a European Power New Offensives in the second half of the 17th century The Limits of Absolutism Power of rulers not absolute Local institutions still had power Power of the aristocracy

26 Map 15.6: The Ottoman Empire

27 The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic
The United Provinces Internal Dissension The House of Orange and the Stadholders The States General opposes the House of Orange William III (1672 – 1702) Trade damaged by wars Life in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam Reasons for prosperity

28 England and the Emergence of Constitutional Monarchy
James I (1603 – 1625) and the House of Stuart Divine Right of Kings Parliament and the power of the purse Religious policies The Puritans Charles I (1625 – 1649) Petition of Right “Personal Rule” (1629 – 1640): Parliament does not meet Religious policy angers Puritans

29 Civil War (1642 – 1648) Oliver Cromwell New Model Army
Charles I executed (January 30, 1649) Parliament abolishes the monarchy Cromwell dissolves Parliament (April 1653) Cromwell divides country into 11 regions Cromwell dies (1658)

30 Restoration & a Glorious Revolution
Charles II (1660 – 1685) Declaration of Indulgence (1672) Test Act (1673) – Only Anglicans could hold military and civil offices James II (1685 – 1688) Devout Catholic Declaration of Indulgence (1687) Protestant daughters: Mary and Anne Catholic son born in 1688 Parliament invites Mary and her husband, William of Orange, to invade England James II, wife and son flee to France Mary and William of Orange offered throne (1689) Bill of Rights The Toleration Act of 1689

31 Responses to the Revolution
Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) Leviathan (1651) People form a commonwealth People have no right to rebel John Locke (1632 – 1704) Two Treatises of Government Inalienable Rights: Life, Liberty and Property People and sovereign form a government If government does not fulfill its duties, people have the right to revolt

32 The Flourishing of European Culture
The Changing Faces of Art Mannerism and Baroque Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 – 1680) Throne of Saint Peter Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 – 1653) Judith Beheading Holofernes French Classicism and Dutch Realism French classicism emphasized clarity, simplicity, balance and harmony of design Dutch Realism: realistic portrayals of secular, everyday life Rembrandt van Rijn (1606 – 1699)

33 The Baroque Trevi Fountain in Rome

34 A Wondrous Age of Theater
Golden Age of Elizabethan Literature (1580 – 1640) William Shakespeare (1564 – 1614) The Globe Theater Lord Chamberlain’s Company Spanish Theater Lope de Vega (1562 – 1635) Wrote 1500 plays – about 1/3 survive French Theater (1630s to 1680s) Jean Baptiste Molière (1622 – 1673) The Misanthrope Tartuffe

35 Discussion Questions Why were so many women targeted during the witchcraft craze? How did the Thirty Years’ War affect the different participants? Was French absolutism truly absolute? Why or why not? What purposes did Versailles serve? How did Western ideas influence the reign of Peter the Great in Russia? What gains did Parliament make at the expense of the monarchy during the course of the seventeenth century? How did English political thinkers react to the the English revolutions? How did the art and plays that emerged after the Renaissance reflect the societies of their day?

36 Web Links The Museum of Witchcraft Chateau Versailles
The Thirty Years War Homepage The State Hermitage Museum – St. Petersburg, Russia Thomas Hobbes Renaissance and Baroque Architecture Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet National Drama: Spain to 1700

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