Presentation on theme: "World War I: The Slaughter of the Finest World History B Seminar #6 Warm Up – Define the following terms: 1.Imperialism 2. Militarism 3. Nationalism."— Presentation transcript:
World War I: The Slaughter of the Finest World History B Seminar #6 Warm Up – Define the following terms: 1.Imperialism 2. Militarism 3. Nationalism
Imperialism: Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region. Militarism: Glorification of the military. Imperialism led to: Militarism led to: Nationalism: A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country. Nationalism led to: Aspirations for independence in a country under foreign domination.
The 20 th Century Begins As the 20th century opened, Europe was brimming with tension. On the surface, all appeared calm. But underneath, the forces of nationalism, imperialism, and militarism helped fuel an intense competition among European nations. In 1914, these forces— along with a set of complex military alliances—led to a war that engulfed all of Europe and eventually touched nearly every corner of the world. After four years of fighting, the Allied Powers, led by France, Britain, and the United States, defeated the Axis (or Central) Powers, comprised mainly of Germany and Austria-Hungary. The conflict, which saw the first use of so much advanced weaponry, devastated Europe. The war left millions dead and millions more wounded. It also left behind a peace treaty that only increased many nations’ bitterness toward one another.
The Great War Nationalism spurs competition among European nations. Imperialism deepens national rivalries. Militarism leads to large standing armies. The alliance system divides Europe into two rival camps. Long-Term Causes The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 prompts Austria to declare war on Serbia. The alliance system requires nations to support their allies. European countries declare war on one another. Immediate Causes WORLD WAR I
The Alliance System in 1914 Allies (Triple Entente*) Great Britain* France* Russia* Italy (changed sides from Triple Alliance) United States (entered the war in 1915) Central Powers (Triple Alliance*) Germany* Austria Hungary* Italy* (later changed sides) Ottoman Empire
Mapping the Alliances 1914-1918 Textbook page 687
Conflicting National Interests Set the Stage for War Imperialism New Advances in military weapons Triple Alliance – Bismarck feared that France would seek revenge for its defeat in the Franco Prussian war of 1871 by trying to regain Alsace-Lorraine. 1879: Dual Alliance – Bismarck tried to prevent a France-Russian alliance that would hem in Germany. Germany and Austria Hungary join forces.
Triple Alliance - Italy requested a pact with Germany and Austria Hungary. This treaty served to isolate France. Triple Entente – Russia Borrowed money from France after losing a war to Japan. 1894: Russia and France form an alliance. Great Britain seeks allies to stop German navy from usurping its dominance of the seas. British and French reach an agreement over control of Morocco (France) and Egypt (Great Britain).
Great Britain and Russia sign an agreement ending rivalry in Middle East. BALKAN POWDER KEG Austria-Hungary controls Bosnia Many people of Serbian descent live in Bosnia Serbia is trying to expand it territory just like everyone else. Serbia decides that Bosnia should be a part of Serbia. Serbia is landlocked and want a way to the sea Taking control of Bosnia gives them sea access. Serbia decides to begin a revolution in Bosnia hoping for Serbs to take control.
Russia, hoping to assume leadership of a Slavic league, supported Serbia’s goals. Who is allied with Russia? France and Great Britain. Who is allied with Austria-Hungary, controller of Bosnia? Germany and Italy June 28, 1914: Bosnian Serbs assassinate Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo, Bosnia. War is declared.
Treaty of Versailles Germany forced to take all responsibility for the war. Germany stripped of its colonies. Germany must pay huge reparations. Alsace and Lorraine to France. Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Finland carved out of Russian territory. Czechoslovakia, Austria and Hungary carved out of German territory. Yugoslavia created in the Balkans. It incorporates Serbia, which disappears.
Mapping the Treaty of Versailles Textbook page 696
A generation of Europeans are killed or wounded. Dynasties fall in Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. New countries are created. The League of Nations is established to help promote peace. Immediate Effects Many nations feel bitter and betrayed by the peace settlements. Problems that helped cause the war— nationalism, competition—remain. Long-Term Effects The Great War WORLD WAR I