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Militarism: Glorification of the military.

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Presentation on theme: "Militarism: Glorification of the military."— Presentation transcript:

1 Militarism: Glorification of the military.
Imperialism: Domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region. Imperialism led to: Militarism: Glorification of the military. Militarism led to: Nationalism: A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country. Nationalism led to: Aspirations for independence in a country under foreign domination.

2 The 20th Century Begins As the 20th century opened, Europe was brimming with tension. On the surface, all appeared calm. But underneath, the forces of nationalism, imperialism, and militarism helped fuel an intense competition among European nations. In 1914, these forces—along with a set of complex military alliances—led to a war that engulfed all of Europe and eventually touched nearly every corner of the world. After four years of fighting, the Allied Powers, led by France, Britain, and the United States, defeated the Axis (or Central) Powers, comprised mainly of Germany and Austria-Hungary. The conflict, which saw the first use of so much advanced weaponry, devastated Europe. The war left millions dead and millions more wounded. It also left behind a peace treaty that only increased many nations’ bitterness toward one another.

3 The Great War WORLD WAR I Immediate Causes Long-Term Causes
Nationalism spurs competition among European nations. Imperialism deepens national rivalries. Militarism leads to large standing armies. The alliance system divides Europe into two rival camps. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 prompts Austria to declare war on Serbia. The alliance system requires nations to support their allies. European countries declare war on one another. WORLD WAR I

4 Mapping the Alliances 1914

5 The Alliance System in 1914 Allies (Triple Entente*) Great Britain*
France* Russia* Italy (changed sides from Triple Alliance) United States (entered the war in 1915) Central Powers (Triple Alliance*) Germany* Austria Hungary* Italy* (later changed sides) Ottoman Empire

6 Mapping the Alliances 1914-1918 Textbook page 687

7 Conflicting National Interests Set the Stage for War
Imperialism New Advances in military weapons Triple Alliance – Bismarck feared that France would seek revenge for its defeat in the Franco Prussian war of 1871 by trying to regain Alsace-Lorraine. 1879: Dual Alliance – Bismarck tried to prevent a France-Russian alliance that would hem in Germany. Germany and Austria Hungary join forces.

8 Triple Alliance - Italy requested a pact with Germany and Austria Hungary. This treaty served to isolate France. Triple Entente – Russia Borrowed money from France after losing a war to Japan. 1894: Russia and France form an alliance. Great Britain seeks allies to stop German navy from usurping its dominance of the seas. British and French reach an agreement over control of Morocco (France) and Egypt (Great Britain).

9 Great Britain and Russia sign an agreement ending rivalry in Middle East.
BALKAN POWDER KEG Austria-Hungary controls Bosnia Many people of Serbian descent live in Bosnia Serbia is trying to expand it territory just like everyone else. Serbia decides that Bosnia should be a part of Serbia. Serbia is landlocked and want a way to the sea Taking control of Bosnia gives them sea access. Serbia decides to begin a revolution in Bosnia hoping for Serbs to take control.

10 Russia, hoping to assume leadership of a Slavic league, supported Serbia’s goals.
Who is allied with Russia? France and Great Britain. Who is allied with Austria-Hungary, controller of Bosnia? Germany and Italy June 28, 1914: Bosnian Serbs assassinate Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo, Bosnia. War is declared.


12 Trench Warfare: Protection from the Machine Gun

13 The Guns of August

14 America Enters the War. At first, Americans avoided entering the war in Europe. Industry concentrated on providing military goods to the Allies. The United States sent aid to the Belgians. German uboats and torpedoing of American ships caused American sentiment to swing toward entering the war.

15 Influenza Pandemic of 1918 One of the most devastating killers of World War I was the flu. More soldiers died of the flu than from gunfire, bombing, or poison gas.

16 The First Air War

17 Treaty of Versailles Germany forced to take all responsibility for the war. Germany stripped of its colonies. Germany must pay huge reparations. Alsace and Lorraine to France. Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Finland carved out of Russian territory. Czechoslovakia, Austria and Hungary carved out of German territory. Yugoslavia created in the Balkans. It incorporates Serbia, which disappears.

18 Mapping the Treaty of Versailles Textbook page 696

19 The Great War WORLD WAR I Long-Term Effects Immediate Effects
Many nations feel bitter and betrayed by the peace settlements. Problems that helped cause the war— nationalism, competition—remain. Immediate Effects A generation of Europeans are killed or wounded. Dynasties fall in Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia. New countries are created. The League of Nations is established to help promote peace.

20 World War I: The World Must Be Made Safe for Democracy!
1. Take out the handout you received last time. 2. Pick up a textbook from the shelf and turn to page Read “New Weapons” and answer the question below on the back of your handout. 4. Use a complete sentence. Warm Up – How did trench warfare affect the fighting in World War I?

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