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CJ © 2011 Cengage Learning Chapter 5 Law Enforcement Today
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Outcomes LO1: List the four basic responsibilities of the police. LO2: List five main types of law enforcement agencies. LO3: Indicate some of the most important law enforcement agencies under the control of the Department of Homeland Security. LO4: Analyze the importance of private secutiry today. LO5: Indicate why patrol officers are allowed discretionary powers.
1 LO © 2011 Cengage Learning List the four basic responsibilities of the police.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 1 The basic responsibilities of police include: To enforce laws To provide services To prevent crime To preserve the peace
2 LO © 2011 Cengage Learning List five main types of law enforcement agencies.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 2 There are more than 17,500 law enforcement agencies in the US, employing more than 1 million people. 12,766 local police departments 3,067 sheriff’s departments 1,481 special police agencies 49 state police departments 70 federal agencies
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 2 Municipal Law Enforcement: Most police officers work in small and medium-sized police departments. Municipal police agencies have the broadest authority to apprehend criminal suspects, maintain order, and provide services to the community. Local offices are responsible for a wide spectrum of duties.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 2 Sheriffs and County Law Enforcement: – Elected by community for two- or four- year terms. – Responsible for: Investigating violent crime Investigating drug offenses Maintaining the county jail Serving evictions and court summonses Keeping order in the courthouse Collecting taxes Enforcing orders of the court, such as sequestration of a jury
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 2 The County Coroner – Investigates “all sudden, unexplained, unnatural, or suspicious deaths.”
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 2 State Police and Highway Patrols: – Historically, state police agencies were created for four reasons: To assist local police agencies To investigate criminal activities that crossed jurisdictional boundaries To provide law enforcement in rural and other areas that did not have local or county police agencies To break strikes and control labor movements
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 2 State Police: –23 agencies –Statewide jurisdiction –Wide variety of law enforcement tasks Highway Patrols: 26 agencies Patrol state and federal highways Jurisdiction limited to traffic laws and investigation of traffic accidents
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 2 Federal law enforcement agencies: – Small percentage of Nation’s law enforcement force in numbers, but have substantial influence – Authorized to enforce specific laws or attend to specific situations – The most far-reaching reorganization of the federal government since World War II took place in 2002 and 2003, with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security
3 LO © 2011 Cengage Learning Indicate some of the most important law enforcement agencies under the control of the Department of Homeland Security.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Outcome 3 Department of Homeland Security U.S. Customs and Border Protection – Polices the flow of goods and people across U.S. borders. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement – Investigates and enforces immigration and customs laws. U.S. Secret Service – Combats counterfeiting and protects political figures.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Outcome 3 Department of Justice Federal Bureau of Investigation – One of the primary investigative federal agencies. – Has jurisdiction over nearly 200 federal crimes. Drug Enforcement Agency – Enforces domestic drug laws and regulations.
© 2011 Cengage Learning CAREERPREP Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Agent Job Descript ion: Primary role is to oversee intelligence and investigate federal crimes. Agents might track the movement of stolen goods across state lines, examine accounting and business records, listen to legal wiretaps, and conduct undercover investigations. Special agent careers are divided into five paths: intelligence, counterintelligence, counterterrorism, criminal, and cyber crime. What Kind of Training Is Required ? A bachelor’s and/or master’s degree, plus three years of work experience, along with a written and oral examination, medical and physical examinations, a psychological assessment, and an exhaustive background investigation. Critical skills required in one or more of the following areas: accounting, finance, computer science/information technology, engineering, foreign language(s), law, law enforcement, intelligence, military, and/or physical sciences. Annual Salary Range? $61,100–$69,900 For additional information, visit: www.fbijobs.gov.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Outcome 3 Department of Justice Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearmsn, and Explosives – Primarily concerned with the illegal sale, possession, and use of firearms, and control of untaxed tobacco and liquor. U.S. Marshals Service – Provide security at courts, transport federal prisoners, and capture fugitives.
© 2011 Cengage Learning CAREERPREP U.S. Marshal Job Descript ion: Provide security at federal courts, control property that has been ordered seized by federal courts, and protect government witnesses who put themselves in danger by testifying against the targets of federal criminal investigations. Transport federal prisoners to detention institutions and hunt and capture fugitives from federal law. What Kind of Training Is Required ? A bachelor’s degree or three years of qualifying experience, which includes work in law enforcement, correctional supervision, and volunteer teaching or counseling. A rigorous seventeen-and-a-half-week basic training program at the U.S Marshals Service Training Academy in Glynco, Georgia. Annual Salary Range? $37,000–$47,000 For additional information, visit: www.usmarshals.gov/careers/index.html.
4 LO © 2011 Cengage Learning Analyze the importance of private security today.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Outcome 4 Over $100 billion spent each year Over 10,000 U.S. private security firms 1.1 million people employed in security each year
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Outcome 4 Private Security Citizen’s Arrest – Any private citizen can perform a citizen’s arrest in certain circumstances. Deterrence – Private security is intended to deter crime, not prevent it.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Outcome 4 Trends in Private Security Lack of standards Quality of employees Continued growth driven by: – Increased public fear – Workplace crime – Police force reductions – Rising awareness of cost-effectiveness of private security
© 2011 Cengage Learning
5 LO © 2011 Cengage Learning Indicate why patrol officers are allowed discretionary powers.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 5 Patrol Officers have the greatest amount of discretionary power within the police agency. The courts have determined that patrol officers are in a unique position to be allowed discretion:
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 5 Police offices are considered trustworthy and are therefore assumed to make honest decisions, regardless of contradictory testimony. Experience and training give offices the ability to determine whether certain activities pose a threat to society, and to take reasonable action necessary to investigate or prevent such activity.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 5 Due to the nature of their jobs, police officers are extremely knowledgeable in human, and by extension, criminal behavior. Police officers may find themselves in danger of personal or physical harm and must be allowed to take reasonable and necessary steps to protect themselves.
© 2011 Cengage Learning Learning Objective 5 Three factors of police discretion: 1.The nature of the criminal act. 2.Attitude of the wrongdoer. 3.Departmental policy.
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