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History of the American Police

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1 History of the American Police
Mr. Whitaker

2 Vocabulary Coroner—the medical examiner of a county,
usually elected by popular vote. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)—the branch of the Department of Justice responsible for investigating violations of federal law. Spoils System—a form of corruption in which the political party in power hires and promotes police officers, receiving job-related “favors” in return.

3 Vocabulary Professional Model—a style of policing that
emphasizes centralized police organizations, increased use of technology, and a limitation of police discretion. Sheriff—the primary law enforcement officer in a county, usually elected to the post by a popular vote. Private Security—the practice of private corporations or individuals offering services traditionally performed by police officers.

4 History of the Police The Romans achieved a high level of law enforcement (Centurions) Military Bodies as Guardians of Peace

5 Police During the Middle Ages
responsibility of local nobles The constable's duties included keeping the peace and arresting and guarding criminals

6 Industrial Age London 1829 established the London Metropolitan
Police—1st modern organized police Became a model for American Police

7 Early American Police Early efforts in American cities were focused on controlling certain groups, regulating trade, maintaining health and sanitation. Governors of the colonies appointed a sheriff in each county, their duties included managing jails and selecting juries

8 The First Police Department
1801 Boston created first formal night watch. 1833 Philadelphia created a day and night watch. 1838 Boston formed first organized police department. 1844 New York combined its day and night watches under a single chief of police.

9 The Spoils System Corruption rampant.
This period also known as the political era, this patronage system lasted from approximately 1840 to 1930.

10 Modernization of the American Police
1929, President Hoover created the Wickersham Commission which focused on two areas of policing that needed reform: police brutality and the corrupting influence of politics. Focused on Professionalism and Administrative reform

11 Professionalism August Vollmer known as father of modern police administration. Promoted higher learner for police officers. Promoted professional model of policing.

12 Administrative Reforms
Police chiefs began to take control of their departments. Upper management positions were created in the department. Special units were created. Beginnings of new technology: fingerprints, patrol cars and other developments.

13 Fingerprints

14 Patrol Cars

15 Turmoil in the 1960s Civil rights. Vietnam era.
Police were thought to contribute to the problems.

16 Returning to the Community
Programs initially focused on time it took police to react to crime. Eventually focus became proactive, focusing on preventing crime before it is committed. By the 1980s, the focus became more of a partnership with the community to prevent crime.

17 Private Security Privatizing Law Enforcement
Ideally, the role of private security should be to “observe and report.” Generally designed to create a deterrence to crime.

18 Problems with Private Security
Lack of Standards No federal regulations. Several states (such as California and Florida) have requirements of at least 40 hours of training. High turnover rates. Low pay.

19 Continued Growth in the Industry
Increase in public fear of crime. Problem of crime in the workplace. Budget cuts in public policing agencies. Increased awareness in private security products.

20 Private Security Project
Research a private security company and answer questions about their company and the services they provide.

21 Police Write down ten things that American police officers do.

22 Four Basic Responsibilities
To enforce laws To provide services To prevent crime To preserve the peace

23 Enforcing Laws (Public and Officer perception) Primary role is to enforce society’s laws Majority of time not spent in crime fighting

24 Providing Services Provide services for the community
Police services are numerous Community Policing

25 Preventing Crime Two responses from community when the crime rises
Stricter laws and punishments Police do something to prevent crime from Happening Is it possible for police to prevent all crimes?

26 Preserving the Peace Police have the legal authority to arrest, use force, and preserve the peace “Handling the situation” “Cracking down on minor offenses”

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