Nouns: person, place, thing (common, and proper) Pronouns: replace nouns (he, she, they, them, that) Verbs: express an action or help make a statement Review
Circle the adjectives in the following sentences 1.My coffee is getting cold. (1) 2.The audience laughed at the funny joke. (3) 3.This pretest is more difficult than I expected. (3) Circle the adverbs in the following sentences 1.The English office is quite cold in the winter. (1) 2.Those Cheetos are flaming hot. (1) 3.Nick timidly thanked his friends for attending. (1) Pretest!
Definition: A word used to modify (or describe) a noun or pronoun
Adjectives modify by telling what kind, which one, or how many What kind? Red paint, new friend, light rain Which one? This room, those books, that car How many? Five feet, ten musicians, many hours What is an Adjective?
An adjective may be separated from the word it modifies by other words Ex: The salad was delicious Delicious modifies salad My ankle is very sore Sore modifies ankle The English textbook is extremely heavy Heavy modifies textbook English modifies textbook Adjectives
Positive: makes a descriptive statement Comparative: used to compare one noun/pronoun to another Superlative: used to make a statement that one noun/pronoun exceeds another Forms or Degrees of Adjectives PositiveComparativeSuperlative LightLighterLightest FunnyFunnierFunniest GoodBetterBest BadWorseWorst
Adjectives are the thieves of the Grammar World They steal! Adjectives steal from other parts of speech to call their own These Parts of speech that adjectives steal from include: Articles Pronouns Nouns A Way to Remember Adjectives…
Articles are the most frequently used adjectives A An The Examples The car pulled up beside us Have you ever seen such an unusual painting? The choir sang the song cheerfully Articles
Some words can act as either a pronoun or an adjective, depending on how they are used. (that, either, many, some, these, those, etc.) Remember, a pronoun takes the place of a noun, while an adjective modifies a noun or pronoun If the word is used as an adjective, a noun must closely follow it Adjectives vs. Pronouns
Ex: That cheese is old - adjective Ex: That is old – pronoun Ex: These shoes are uncomfortable - adjective Ex: These are uncomfortable – pronoun Practice: Many people like to travel to the city adjective That is not funny pronoun I just love these silly socks adjective Adjective or Pronoun?
Sometimes, nouns can act as adjectives if they are being used to modify (describe) another noun Nouns vs. Adjectives NounNoun as Adjective Crisp BaconBacon sandwich Blinding SnowSnow sculpture Last DecemberDecember sale
Possessive Nouns and Pronouns (his, hers, Bob’s) can also be considered adjectives because they are used to describe nouns Ex: Which shoes? Bob’s shoes Ex: Whose house? His house Possessive Nouns can be Adjectives
Some common and proper nouns can be used as adjectives Common noun: cityAdj: city street Common noun: cheeseAdj: cheese omelet Common noun: baconAdj: bacon sandwich Proper noun: JapaneseAdj: Japanese restaurant Proper noun: MalaysiaAdj: Malaysian language Common and Proper Nouns as Adjectives
Write 2 sentences using adjectives with the following picture Practice
Label the following sentence with the parts of speech that we have learned so far: The white snow glitters gently in the soft light The – article (adj) White – adjective Snow – noun Glitters – verb Gently - adverb In – preposition (we’ll get to that next) The – article (adj) Soft – adjective Light - noun Putting it all Together
Definition: A word that describes/modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb
Adverbs modifying Verbs Adverbs answer the following questions about verbs Where? Ex: The bird was chirping downstairs. When? Ex: The bird chirped today. How? Ex: The bird chirped loudly. How long? Or how much? Ex: The bird chirped constantly
Adverbs modifying Adjectives Adverbs can be used to modify an adjective and give more detail in a sentence Usually adverbs are used to answer the following about adjectives: How much? And to what extent? Ex: The cheese is moldy The cheese is extremely moldy Ex: I am tired I am very tired The adverbs most commonly used to modify adjectives are: very, too, and so.
Adverbs modifying other Adverbs Adverbs can be used to modify other adverbs by giving more detail and answering the questions: How much? Or To what extent? Ex: Calvin was never late Calvin was almost never late Ex: We’ll meet afterward We’ll meet shortly afterward
Adverb Forms Used to Compare Positive – descriptive statement Comparative – compare one action to another (Usually add –er or more, BUT NOT BOTH) Superlative – make the statement that action exceeds another in a certain quality (Usually add –est or most BUT NOT BOTH) PositiveComparativeSuperlative Runs fast Runs faster Runs fastest Runs well Runs better Runs best Runs far Runs farther Runs farthest
Remember! Adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs Adverbs are used to add more detail to a sentence Adverbs often end in –ly BUT, not always AND some –ly words ARE NOT adverbs