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Knowledge Acquisition and Modelling Concept Mapping.

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Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Acquisition and Modelling Concept Mapping."— Presentation transcript:

1 Knowledge Acquisition and Modelling Concept Mapping

2 Knowledge Tools  Technology that enables knowledge generation, codification transfer  Not all are computer based  Not information management tools  Can manipulate information  Automated information search, retrieval agents, decision support, document management

3 Mapping  An active learning strategy  moves from rote memorization to critical thinking.  Provides an explicit, encapsulated representation of important ideas on one page  Promotes a richer construction of knowledge because you must organize, select, relate and interpret data.  Requires that you break down component parts to see how things are put together.  Helps you to see gaps in knowledge and areas of oversimplification, contradiction or misinterpretation.

4 Mapping  Visual presentation at some level  Consists of  Concept catalog (allows links to other maps, even with different lexicons)  Metadata depository (files and links)

5 Concept Maps - History  Developed in 1972 by J. D. Novak, Cornell University  Powerful aspect  Ability to represent knowledge structure of an individual on any topic  Knowledge Representation  Concepts represented by nodes  Linked by words that represent a relationship between the nodes

6 Concept Maps - History  Developed a project seeking to understand changes in childrens’ knowledge of science  Based on Ausubel’s learning psychology  Learning takes place by assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing concept and propositional framework

7 Concept Mapping  Concept mapping can be done for several reasons:  To design complex structures.  To generate ideas.  To communicate ideas.  To diagnose misunderstanding.  Concept mapping can be used in acquisition:  To elicit knowledge  To model knowledge  To communicate knowledge  To interpret knowledge  To gain new knowledge

8 Concept Mapping  Six-step procedure for using a concept map as a tool:  Preparation.  Idea generation.  Statement structuring.  Representation.  Interpretation  Utilization.

9 Terminology 1:Concept Mapping using Cmap to enhance Meaningful Learning, Canas, AJ and novak J.D, in Knowledge Cartography, Odake, Buckingham, Shum, Sherbourne (eds), Springer-Verlag, 2008  Concept  “a perceived regularity or pattern in events or objects  or record of events or objects  a unit of meaning  designated by a symbol usually a word”1  Objects are defined as things  Events are defined as happenings  Help describe the domain in which we are working

10 Terminology  Concepts are linked  Linking phrases are usually verbs which when read with the nodes they link form a phrase or proposition  Represent relationships between concepts  Freedom to choose linking phrases distinguishes the concept map from other maps such as mind maps, process maps, etc 1:Concept Mapping using Cmap to enhance Meaningful Learning, Canas, AJ and novak J.D, in Knowledge Cartography, Odake, Buckingham, Shum, Sherbourne (eds), Springer-Verlag, 2008

11 Characteristics  Start with a Focus question  the problem or issue the concept map should help to resolve.  Propositions  a concept map consists of a graphical representation of a set of propositions about a topic.  Hierarchical structure  most general concepts are at the top of the map and the more specific, less general concepts are arranged hierarchically below.  tend to be read from the top, progressing down towards the bottom.  Not always true – map can be cyclic as long as there is logical order (e.g. using arrows or numbers).  Can be more than one root.  Structure depends on context  Cross-Links  relationships or links between concepts in different areas of the concept map.  often represent new insights on the part of the knowledge producer.

12 Relationships  Static Relationships  help to describe, define, and organize knowledge for a given domain.  inclusion (part-of),  common membership (belonging to a group)  intersection (members of a group belonging also to another group)  similarity  Dynamic Relationships  describes how the change in one concept affects the other concept.  Causality (second event is a consequence of first event)  correlation/probability (can indicate a predictive relationship, tendency to vary together)

13 Example from http://

14 How to Draw a Concept Map  Start with a focus question  Identify the key concepts  Rank the concepts by placing the broadest and most inclusive idea at the top of the map.  Be aware of the context of the concepts we are dealing with or to have some idea of the situation for which these concepts are arranged.  Work down the paper and add more specific concepts.  This is where elicitation techniques can be useful

15 How to Draw a Concept Map  Connect the concepts by lines.  Label the lines with action or linking words.  The linking words should define the relationship between the two concepts so that it reads as a true statement, or proposition.  The connection creates meaning.  Specific examples of concepts can be added below the concept labels. (e.g., golden retriever is a specific example of a dog breed.)  As your understanding of relationships between concepts changes, so will your maps.  Refer to your previous maps to help you visualize the evolutionary process of your understanding.

16 J.D. Novak Concept Map of Concept Maps


18 Create a concept map about plants using these concepts

19 Exercise  Pick a topic  Using elicitation techniques covered last week, generate a set of concepts and relationships  Build a concept map to reflect

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