Presentation on theme: "Knowledge Acquisition and Modelling Concept Mapping."— Presentation transcript:
Knowledge Acquisition and Modelling Concept Mapping
Knowledge Tools Technology that enables knowledge generation, codification transfer Not all are computer based Not information management tools Can manipulate information Automated information search, retrieval agents, decision support, document management
Mapping An active learning strategy moves from rote memorization to critical thinking. Provides an explicit, encapsulated representation of important ideas on one page Promotes a richer construction of knowledge because you must organize, select, relate and interpret data. Requires that you break down component parts to see how things are put together. Helps you to see gaps in knowledge and areas of oversimplification, contradiction or misinterpretation.
Mapping Visual presentation at some level Consists of Concept catalog (allows links to other maps, even with different lexicons) Metadata depository (files and links)
Concept Maps - History Developed in 1972 by J. D. Novak, Cornell University Powerful aspect Ability to represent knowledge structure of an individual on any topic Knowledge Representation Concepts represented by nodes Linked by words that represent a relationship between the nodes
Concept Maps - History Developed a project seeking to understand changes in childrens’ knowledge of science Based on Ausubel’s learning psychology Learning takes place by assimilation of new concepts and propositions into existing concept and propositional framework
Concept Mapping Concept mapping can be done for several reasons: To design complex structures. To generate ideas. To communicate ideas. To diagnose misunderstanding. Concept mapping can be used in acquisition: To elicit knowledge To model knowledge To communicate knowledge To interpret knowledge To gain new knowledge
Concept Mapping Six-step procedure for using a concept map as a tool: Preparation. Idea generation. Statement structuring. Representation. Interpretation Utilization.
Terminology 1:Concept Mapping using Cmap to enhance Meaningful Learning, Canas, AJ and novak J.D, in Knowledge Cartography, Odake, Buckingham, Shum, Sherbourne (eds), Springer-Verlag, 2008 Concept “a perceived regularity or pattern in events or objects or record of events or objects a unit of meaning designated by a symbol usually a word”1 Objects are defined as things Events are defined as happenings Help describe the domain in which we are working
Terminology Concepts are linked Linking phrases are usually verbs which when read with the nodes they link form a phrase or proposition Represent relationships between concepts Freedom to choose linking phrases distinguishes the concept map from other maps such as mind maps, process maps, etc 1:Concept Mapping using Cmap to enhance Meaningful Learning, Canas, AJ and novak J.D, in Knowledge Cartography, Odake, Buckingham, Shum, Sherbourne (eds), Springer-Verlag, 2008
Characteristics Start with a Focus question the problem or issue the concept map should help to resolve. Propositions a concept map consists of a graphical representation of a set of propositions about a topic. Hierarchical structure most general concepts are at the top of the map and the more specific, less general concepts are arranged hierarchically below. tend to be read from the top, progressing down towards the bottom. Not always true – map can be cyclic as long as there is logical order (e.g. using arrows or numbers). Can be more than one root. Structure depends on context Cross-Links relationships or links between concepts in different areas of the concept map. often represent new insights on the part of the knowledge producer.
Relationships Static Relationships help to describe, define, and organize knowledge for a given domain. inclusion (part-of), common membership (belonging to a group) intersection (members of a group belonging also to another group) similarity Dynamic Relationships describes how the change in one concept affects the other concept. Causality (second event is a consequence of first event) correlation/probability (can indicate a predictive relationship, tendency to vary together)
Example from http://http://cmap.ihmc.us/http://cmap.ihmc.us/
How to Draw a Concept Map Start with a focus question Identify the key concepts Rank the concepts by placing the broadest and most inclusive idea at the top of the map. Be aware of the context of the concepts we are dealing with or to have some idea of the situation for which these concepts are arranged. Work down the paper and add more specific concepts. This is where elicitation techniques can be useful
How to Draw a Concept Map Connect the concepts by lines. Label the lines with action or linking words. The linking words should define the relationship between the two concepts so that it reads as a true statement, or proposition. The connection creates meaning. Specific examples of concepts can be added below the concept labels. (e.g., golden retriever is a specific example of a dog breed.) As your understanding of relationships between concepts changes, so will your maps. Refer to your previous maps to help you visualize the evolutionary process of your understanding.