Theoretical foundation What are they? Some examples Possible roles Downside Software Tools
Theory of Meaningful Learning “If I had to reduce all of educational psychology to just one principle, I would say this: The most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. Ascertain this and teach him accordingly" David Ausubel
Meaningful Learning Primarily addresses the acquisition and use of knowledge Meaningful learning is controlled by the learner New information is related to information already known by the learner New information is assimilated into existing knowledge frameworks
Three Components of Meaningful Learning learner's relevant prior knowledge meaningful material learner choice to use meaningful learning Meaningful learning is distinguished from rote learning in that rote learning often omits underlying reasons for rules, practices, and procedures
What are Concept Maps? Invented by Joe Novak – who was influenced by Ausubel Concept maps include –Concepts (usually enclosed in circles or boxes) –Relationships between concepts (connecting line & linking word) –Hierarchical structure – most general at top, more specific at bottom Depends on context in which knowledge is being applied/considered –Cross-links between concepts in different domains of the map –Specific examples
Varied Purposes to generate ideas (brain storming, etc.) to design a complex structure (long texts, hypermedia, large web sites, etc.) to communicate complex ideas to aid learning by explicitly integrating new and old knowledge to assess understanding or diagnose misunderstanding.
Constructing Good Maps Identify a particular problem or question or laboratory activity (domain) that is to be understood. (creates context to help determine hierarchical structure) Identify key concepts that apply to the domain Rank concepts from most general to most specific (this is a loose, approximate ranking)
Plants Petals Color Green Flowers Roots Stems Leaves Seeds Food Sun 23.5 Degrees Tilt Amount of Sunlight Summer Slight Variation in Distance Winter Position in Orbit Negligible Effect Seasonal Temperature Variations Height of Sun Above Horizon Length of Day What is a plant? Why do we have seasons?