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Formulating objectives, general and specific

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1 Formulating objectives, general and specific

2 In planning effective curriculum, the objectives of different courses of study are to be clearly defined and laid down, so that courses are well guided Before formulating the objectives of nursing educational program, the needs of learners, organization, society, community and nation to be considered

3 Definition The result sought by the learner at the end of the educational program, ie, what the students should be able to do at the end of a learning period, that they could not do beforehand - J J Guilbert Desired end results or goals are expected or anticipated end results The statement of those changes in behavior which are desired as a result of specific learner and teacher activity which is a two way process.

4 Purposes in nursing education
To prepare the nurses for rendering community services through primary health To prepare nurses for providing care at institutional level To prepare nurse educators to handle teaching learning situations in all clinical areas

5 Domains of educational taxonomy
(practical skills) Conative (communication skill) Affective (knowledge) Cognitive

6 Levels of cognitive domain
Recall of facts Interpretation of data Problem solving

7 Levels of conative domain
Imitation Control Automatism

8 Levels of affective domain
Receptivity or attention Response internalization

9 Taxonomy of educational objectives
The 5 levels of Bloom's taxonomy are:  Knowledge and Comprehension  This is the lowest level on Bloom's cognitive domain. It is associated with the recall of information, knowledge of subject matter as well as understanding basic facts.

10 Taxonomy of educational objectives
Application  Application relates to the using and applying of information. Problem solving methods are utilized and information is recorded, reported and manipulated. 

11 Taxonomy of educational objectives
Analysis  Analysis specifically refers to the identification of patterns and the organization of ideas. It is strongly linked to the recognition of meaning. There is an emphasis towards examination, classification, investigation and comparison of ideas. 

12 Synthesis  Synthesis focuses strongly on the creation of new ideas and the concept of invention, imagining, prediction, estimating, modifying, inferential thinking and hypothesizing. Ideas are combined and new concepts emerge. 

13 Evaluation Evaluation is the highest order of thinking on the taxonomy
Evaluation  Evaluation is the highest order of thinking on the taxonomy. It involves the assessing of theories, the use of higher order reasoning skills and the comparison, judgment and evaluation of ideas.  By using Bloom's Taxonomy as a guide, one is assured of an upward movement from lower level recall of information (Knowledge and Comprehension) to higher level synthesis and evaluation.



16 Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain
Level 1 - Knowledge (Memory) This level includes definitions, terms, categories, and "boomerang-back" information. Level 2 - Comprehension This level includes interpretation, putting ideas in one's own words. Level 3 - Application This level involves using knowledge to solve problems when no directions or methods are specified. Level 4 - Analysis This level involves the ability to outline major points, to break down material into its component parts. Level 5 - Synthesis This level involves putting together the parts to form something that is new. Level 6 - Evaluation This level involves the ability to make a judgment based on criteria.

17 Verbs in the Cognitive Domain
Verbs using levels of understanding for use in formulating questions for oral or written use or for stating learning objectives arranged according to Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain. KNOWLEDGE The student recalls or recognizes information. define, name, memorize repeat, label, record list, recall, relate

18 Verbs in the Cognitive Domain
COMPREHENSION The student changes information into a different symbolic form/language. restate, report, express describe, tell, locate explain, discuss, review identify, recognize translate, interpret

19 APPLICATION The student solves a problem by using the knowledge and appropriate generalizations. apply, show, illustrate use, demonstrate, schedule practice, dramatize, employ operate

20 ANALYSIS The student separate information into component parts. distinguish, debate, compare differentiate, question, diagram calculate, solve, inspect test, analyze, inventory contract, appraise, relate criticize, experiment, examine 

21 SYNTHESIS The student solves a problem by putting information together that requires original, creative thinking. compose, set up, collect propose, manage, create formulate, plan, organize assemble, design, prepare construct, arrange

22 EVALUATION The student makes qualitative and quantitative judgments according to set standards. estimate, value, measure evaluate, predict, select/choose compare, appraise, assess score, rate

23 Components of a complete statement of objectives
condition Criterian/level Behavior

24 Data required for formulation of educational objectives
Health needs/ demands of society Services to the patient Services to the community The profession itself The students Progress in sciences Scientific methods Statement of school’s philosophy Levels of professional competencies to be attained

25 Student’s background, level of education
Statutory minimum requirements Teaching, physical and clinical resources available Future demands on nursing Expected responsibilities for different nursing positions

26 Types of educational objectives
General institutional Specific/ insructional Intermediate

27 General objectives or professional functions
Correspond to the functioning of the types of health personnel trained in an establishment The course objectives must be in harmony with general curriculum objectives of program of school Eg: providing preventive and curative care to the individual and the community in health and sickness

28 Intermediate objectives or professional activities
It is made possible by breaking down general objectives into components, which together indicate the nature of those functions Eg: planning and carrying out blood sampling session for a group of adults in community

29 Institutional objectives
The graduate of nursing program will be prepared to function as generalist with beginning competencies in a specialized area of nursing Eg: the graduate will be prepared to function in a variety of settings and be able to obtain health histories and make health assessments

30 Specific or instructional objectives
Instructional objectives are descriptions of performance the instruction is expected to produce

31 Qualities of specific objectives
Relevant Logical Unequivocal Feasible Observable measurable

32 Characteristics of specific objectives
Behavioral terms Reflect the condition Reflect the standard Reasonable in number of behavioral changes expected Consistent with unit theme Relation to each other and unit Approximately of some level of generality and specificity Distinctive and discriptive

33 Thank you

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