2 In planning effective curriculum, the objectives of different courses of study are to be clearly defined and laid down, so that courses are well guidedBefore formulating the objectives of nursing educational program, the needs of learners, organization, society, community and nation to be considered
3 DefinitionThe result sought by the learner at the end of the educational program, ie, what the students should be able to do at the end of a learning period, that they could not do beforehand - J J GuilbertDesired end results or goals are expected or anticipated end resultsThe statement of those changes in behavior which are desired as a result of specific learner and teacher activity which is a two way process.
4 Purposes in nursing education To prepare the nurses for rendering community services through primary healthTo prepare nurses for providing care at institutional levelTo prepare nurse educators to handle teaching learning situations in all clinical areas
5 Domains of educational taxonomy (practical skills)Conative(communication skill)Affective(knowledge)Cognitive
6 Levels of cognitive domain Recall of factsInterpretation of dataProblem solving
7 Levels of conative domain ImitationControlAutomatism
8 Levels of affective domain Receptivity or attentionResponseinternalization
9 Taxonomy of educational objectives The 5 levels of Bloom's taxonomy are: Knowledge and Comprehension This is the lowest level on Bloom's cognitive domain. It is associated with the recall of information, knowledge of subject matter as well as understanding basic facts.
10 Taxonomy of educational objectives Application Application relates to the using and applying of information.Problem solving methods are utilized and information is recorded, reported and manipulated.
11 Taxonomy of educational objectives Analysis Analysis specifically refers to the identification of patterns and the organization of ideas.It is strongly linked to the recognition of meaning. There is an emphasis towards examination, classification, investigation and comparison of ideas.
12 Synthesis Synthesis focuses strongly on the creation of new ideas and the concept of invention, imagining, prediction, estimating, modifying, inferential thinking and hypothesizing. Ideas are combined and new concepts emerge.
13 Evaluation Evaluation is the highest order of thinking on the taxonomy Evaluation Evaluation is the highest order of thinking on the taxonomy. It involves the assessing of theories, the use of higher order reasoning skills and the comparison, judgment and evaluation of ideas. By using Bloom's Taxonomy as a guide, one is assured of an upward movement from lower level recall of information (Knowledge and Comprehension) to higher level synthesis and evaluation.
16 Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain Level 1 - Knowledge (Memory)This level includes definitions, terms, categories, and "boomerang-back" information.Level 2 - ComprehensionThis level includes interpretation, putting ideas in one's own words.Level 3 - ApplicationThis level involves using knowledge to solve problems when no directions or methods are specified.Level 4 - AnalysisThis level involves the ability to outline major points, to break down material into its component parts.Level 5 - SynthesisThis level involves putting together the parts to form something that is new.Level 6 - EvaluationThis level involves the ability to make a judgment based on criteria.
17 Verbs in the Cognitive Domain Verbs using levels of understanding for use in formulating questions for oral or written use or for stating learning objectives arranged according to Bloom's Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain.KNOWLEDGEThe student recalls or recognizes information.define, name, memorizerepeat, label, recordlist, recall, relate
18 Verbs in the Cognitive Domain COMPREHENSIONThe student changes information into a different symbolic form/language.restate, report, expressdescribe, tell, locateexplain, discuss, reviewidentify, recognizetranslate, interpret
19 APPLICATIONThe student solves a problem by using the knowledge and appropriate generalizations.apply, show, illustrateuse, demonstrate, schedulepractice, dramatize, employoperate
20 ANALYSISThe student separate information into component parts.distinguish, debate, comparedifferentiate, question, diagramcalculate, solve, inspecttest, analyze, inventorycontract, appraise, relatecriticize, experiment, examine
21 SYNTHESISThe student solves a problem by putting information together that requires original, creative thinking.compose, set up, collectpropose, manage, createformulate, plan, organizeassemble, design, prepareconstruct, arrange
22 EVALUATIONThe student makes qualitative and quantitative judgments according to set standards.estimate, value, measureevaluate, predict, select/choosecompare, appraise, assessscore, rate
23 Components of a complete statement of objectives conditionCriterian/levelBehavior
24 Data required for formulation of educational objectives Health needs/ demands of societyServices to the patientServices to the communityThe profession itselfThe studentsProgress in sciencesScientific methodsStatement of school’s philosophyLevels of professional competencies to be attained
25 Student’s background, level of education Statutory minimum requirementsTeaching, physical and clinical resources availableFuture demands on nursingExpected responsibilities for different nursing positions
26 Types of educational objectives GeneralinstitutionalSpecific/ insructionalIntermediate
27 General objectives or professional functions Correspond to the functioning of the types of health personnel trained in an establishmentThe course objectives must be in harmony with general curriculum objectives of program of schoolEg: providing preventive and curative care to the individual and the community in health and sickness
28 Intermediate objectives or professional activities It is made possible by breaking down general objectives into components, which together indicate the nature of those functionsEg: planning and carrying out blood sampling session for a group of adults in community
29 Institutional objectives The graduate of nursing program will be prepared to function as generalist with beginning competencies in a specialized area of nursingEg: the graduate will be prepared to function in a variety of settings and be able to obtain health histories and make health assessments
30 Specific or instructional objectives Instructional objectives are descriptions of performance the instruction is expected to produce
31 Qualities of specific objectives RelevantLogicalUnequivocalFeasibleObservablemeasurable
32 Characteristics of specific objectives Behavioral termsReflect the conditionReflect the standardReasonable in number of behavioral changes expectedConsistent with unit themeRelation to each other and unitApproximately of some level of generality and specificityDistinctive and discriptive